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  • Question 1 - The optic foramen, superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum and foramen sinosum...

    Correct

    • The optic foramen, superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum and foramen sinosum are all located on which bone at the base of the skull?

      Your Answer: Sphenoid

      Explanation:

      The sphenoid bone consists of two parts, a central part and two wing-like structures that extend sideways towards each side of the skull. It forms the base of the skull, and floor and sides of the orbit. On its central part lies the optic foramen. The foramen ovale, foramen spinosum and foramen rotundum lie on its great wing while the superior orbital fissure lies on its lesser wing.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      14.1
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - In a neurological exam on a robbery with violence victim, it was discovered...

    Correct

    • In a neurological exam on a robbery with violence victim, it was discovered that the victim had lost sense of touch to the skin over her cheek and chin (maxilla and mandible region). Where are the cell bodies of the nerve that is responsible for touch sensations of this region located?

      Your Answer: Cranial nerve V ganglion

      Explanation:

      The skin over the cheek and the maxilla are innervated by the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The trigeminal nerve has three major branches and it is the largest cranial nerve. The three branches of the trigeminal nerve are; the ophthalmic nerve, the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve. The trigeminal nerves ganglion is a sensory nerve ganglion know as the trigeminal ganglion (also referred to as the Gasser’s ganglion or the semilunar ganglion). It is contained in the dura matter in a cavity known as the Meckel’s cave, which covers the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.3
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - A 20-year old college student was diagnosed with meningitis that had developed due...

    Correct

    • A 20-year old college student was diagnosed with meningitis that had developed due to an acute cavernous sinus thrombosis from an ear infection. Which of the following superficial venous routes is the usual path that an infected blood clot takes to reach the cavernous sinus?

      Your Answer: Facial vein

      Explanation:

      The facial vein is the usual communication between the cavernous sinus and the pterygoid sinus. It is through this vein that an infected clot can travel to the cavernous sinus and cause infection. The pterygoid plexus is a venous plexus that is situated between the temporalis muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle, and partly between the two pterygoid muscles. The pterygoid plexus is connected to the facial vein by the deep facial vein. This connection is what makes this area where this sinus and the facial vein are located a danger zone. The danger zone or triangle of the face is the area from the corners of the mouth to the nose bridge. The sinus connection in this area makes it possible for infection to reach the cavernous sinus and at times cause meningitis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.5
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - The nasolacrimal duct is a membranous canal. It extends from the lower part...

    Correct

    • The nasolacrimal duct is a membranous canal. It extends from the lower part of the lacrimal sac and drains into which structure?

      Your Answer: Inferior meatus

      Explanation:

      The nasolacrimal duct carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity. The duct begins in the eye socket between the maxillary and lacrimal bones, from where it passes downwards and backwards. The opening of the nasolacrimal duct into the inferior nasal meatus of the nasal cavity is partially covered by a mucosal fold (valve of Hasner or plica lacrimalis). Excess tears flow through the nasolacrimal duct which drains into the inferior nasal meatus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.9
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - A 42 - year old male patient with an acute onset headache was...

    Correct

    • A 42 - year old male patient with an acute onset headache was brought in to the emergency department with suspicion of a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The SHO on call decided to have a diagnostic lumbar puncture after computed topography scan failed to support the suspicion. To perform a successful lumbar puncture without causing injury to the spine, which anatomical landmark should guide the SHO to locate the fourth vertebra for insertion of the spinal needle?

      Your Answer: Iliac crest

      Explanation:

      The safest spinal level for conducting a lumbar puncture, is at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The anatomical landmark used to locate the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4), is the iliac crest. The needle can safely be inserted either above or below L4. The conus medullaris is at the level of the border of L1 and L2 so L4 is safely distant from it.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - The dilator pupillae muscle is innervated by postganglionic sympathetic fibres. Where do the...

    Correct

    • The dilator pupillae muscle is innervated by postganglionic sympathetic fibres. Where do the postganglionic sympathetic fibres originate?

      Your Answer: Superior cervical ganglion

      Explanation:

      The postganglionic sympathetic axons are derived from the superior cervical ganglion and innervate the eye and lacrimal gland allowing for vasoconstriction of the iris and sclera, pupillary dilation, widening of the palpebral fissure, and a reduction in tear production.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - A patient is unable to move their mandible to the left. Which muscle...

    Correct

    • A patient is unable to move their mandible to the left. Which muscle is affected in this case?

      Your Answer: Right lateral pterygoid muscle

      Explanation:

      Patients with paralysis of the right pterygoid muscle are unable to move their mandible laterally to the left.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - A 50 year old female patient with an history of chronic headache was...

    Correct

    • A 50 year old female patient with an history of chronic headache was scheduled for CT scan. If the CT scan revealed a tumour at the horn of the lateral ventricle, which of the following structures is most likely to be compressed by this tumour?

      Your Answer: Fibres of the corpus callosum

      Explanation:

      The ventricular system of the brain is made up of four ventricles namely; two lateral and a third and forth ventricle. The ventricles are the site of the development of the cerebrospinal fluid. The left and right lateral ventricles are located in each of the brain’s hemispheres. The roof of the lateral ventricles are made up of the fibres of the corpus callosum. This is the structure that would be compressed by the a tumour on the roof of the lateral ventricles.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.3
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A 60 year old female patient who has suffered an embolic stroke that...

    Correct

    • A 60 year old female patient who has suffered an embolic stroke that affected her middle cerebral artery as revealed by a CT scan is likely to exhibit which of the following neurologic conditions?

      Your Answer: Contralateral hemiplegia

      Explanation:

      The middle cerebral artery is a major artery that supplies blood to the cerebrum. It continues from the internal carotid artery up into the lateral sulcus. The middle cerebral artery mainly supplies the lateral aspect of the cerebral cortex, anterior aspect of the temporal lobes and the insular cortices.

      Functional areas supplied by this vein are as follows:

      The motor and pre-motor areas

      The somato-sensory

      Auditory areas

      Motor speech

      Sensory speech

      Pre-frontal area

      Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in:

      i) A severe contralateral hemiplegia, most marked in the upper extremity and face

      ii) A contralateral sensory impairment worse in the upper part of the body.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.7
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - In relation to the muscles of facial expression, It is true to say:...

    Correct

    • In relation to the muscles of facial expression, It is true to say:

      Your Answer: They are in the same subcutaneous plane as the platysma muscle

      Explanation:

      The facial muscles generally originate from the facial bones and attach to the skin, in the same plane as the platysma muscle. They are all innervated by cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve). The occipitofrontalis muscle consists of two parts: The occipital belly, near the occipital bone, and the frontal belly, near the frontal bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.6
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - All the following statements are FALSE regarding the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal...

    Correct

    • All the following statements are FALSE regarding the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, except:

      Your Answer: The ophthalmic nerve is the smallest branch of the trigeminal nerve

      Explanation:

      The ophthalmic nerve is the smallest of the three trigeminal divisions. The cutaneous branches of the ophthalmic nerve supply the conjunctiva, the skin over the forehead, the upper eyelid, and much of the external surface of the nose.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.7
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - What intrinsic muscle of the larynx is responsible for the tensing of the...

    Correct

    • What intrinsic muscle of the larynx is responsible for the tensing of the vocal cords?

      Your Answer: Cricothyroid muscle

      Explanation:

      The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation. It attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage. Its action tilts the thyroid forward to help tense the vocal cords.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.6
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - The orbicularis oculi us a muscle that closes the eyelids. What is the...

    Correct

    • The orbicularis oculi us a muscle that closes the eyelids. What is the motor innervation of this muscle?

      Your Answer: A branch of a nerve that exits through the stylomastoid foramen

      Explanation:

      The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids. It is supplied by zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which exits through the stylomastoid foramen.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.4
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - Which of the following two cerebral veins join up to form the great...

    Correct

    • Which of the following two cerebral veins join up to form the great cerebral vein, otherwise also known as the great vein of Galen?

      Your Answer: Internal cerebral veins

      Explanation:

      The great vein of Galen or great cerebral vein, is formed by the union of the internal cerebral veins and the basal veins of Rosenthal. This vein curves upwards and backwards along the border of the splenium of the corpus callosum and eventually drains into the inferior sagittal sinus and straight sinus at its anterior extremity.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.6
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - At which cervical level does the common carotid artery bifurcate into the internal...

    Correct

    • At which cervical level does the common carotid artery bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries?

      Your Answer: C4

      Explanation:

      The common carotid arteries are present on the left and right sides of the body. These arteries originate from different sources, but follow symmetrical courses. The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk; the left from the aortic arch in the thorax. These split into the external and internal carotid arteries at the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, at around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.3
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - The dura mater is a thick membrane that is the outermost of the...

    Correct

    • The dura mater is a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges. Which of the following foramen transmits the dura mater?

      Your Answer: Foramen magnum

      Explanation:

      The foramen magnum is found in the most inferior part of the posterior cranial fossa . It is traversed by vital structures including the medulla oblongata . Its contents include the following: medulla oblongata, meninges (arachnoid, dura and pia mater), spinal root of the accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, anterior and posterior spinal arteries, tectorial membrane and alar ligaments .

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      12.4
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - Injury to this nerve will affect the function of the palatoglossus and levator...

    Correct

    • Injury to this nerve will affect the function of the palatoglossus and levator veli palatini muscles:

      Your Answer: Cranial nerve X

      Explanation:

      The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) innervates both the palatoglossus and levator veli palatini muscles.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.2
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - An excision of a mass in the right parietal area of the head...

    Correct

    • An excision of a mass in the right parietal area of the head will be performed. In which layer of the scalp are the nerves and blood vessels located?

      Your Answer: Connective tissue

      Explanation:

      The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back. The scalp is usually described as having five layers:

      1. The skin which contains numerous sebaceous glands and hair follicles.

      2. The connective tissue, a dense subcutaneous layer of fat and fibrous tissue that lies beneath the skin, containing the nerves and vessels of the scalp.

      3. The aponeurosis or galea aponeurotica, a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly.

      4. The loose areolar connective tissue layer provides an easy plane of separation between the upper three layers and the pericranium.

      5. The pericranium is the periosteum of the skull bones and provides nutrition to the bone and the capacity for repair.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.3
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - Which of the following foramen provides passage of the facial nerve? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following foramen provides passage of the facial nerve?

      Your Answer: Internal acoustic meatus

      Explanation:

      The internal auditory meatus provides a passage through which the vestibulocochlear nerve, the facial nerve, and the labyrinthine artery (an internal auditory branch of the basilar artery) can pass from inside the skull to structures of the inner ear and face.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.7
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - The middle meningeal artery is the largest among the arteries that supplies that...

    Correct

    • The middle meningeal artery is the largest among the arteries that supplies that dura mater of the brain. The middle meningeal artery is a branch of the?

      Your Answer: Maxillary artery

      Explanation:

      The middle meningeal artery is the largest of the three (paired) arteries that supply the meninges.

      The middle meningeal artery is a large arterial branch of the maxillary artery which is a terminal branch of the external carotid artery. Upon originating, the middle meningeal artery passes through the foramen spinosum. In the skull, it courses in the middle cranial fossa where it provides several branches.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.6
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - A patient had sudden complete loss of vision of the right eye. Fundoscopy...

    Correct

    • A patient had sudden complete loss of vision of the right eye. Fundoscopy showed the distinct cherry red spot on the retina. Which of the following arteries was occluded?

      Your Answer: Central artery of the retina

      Explanation:

      The central retinal artery supplies all the nerve fibres that form the optic nerve, which carries the visual information to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. Thus if the central retinal artery gets occluded, there is complete loss of vision in that eye and the entire retina (with the exception of the fovea) becomes pale, swollen and opaque while the central fovea still appears reddish (this is because the choroid colour shows through). This is the basis of the famous Cherry red spot seen on examination of the retina on fundoscopy of a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.7
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Which of the following muscles attach to the hyoid bone? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following muscles attach to the hyoid bone?

      Your Answer: Middle pharyngeal constrictor

      Explanation:

      The hyoid bone is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. A large number of muscles attach to the hyoid: Superiorly – the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle, hyoglossus muscle, genioglossus, intrinsic muscles of the tongue and suprahyoid muscles. Inferiorly – the thyrohyoid muscle, omohyoid muscle and sternohyoid muscle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.8
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - A 35 year-old woman is undergoing thyroidectomy. The external laryngeal nerve may be...

    Correct

    • A 35 year-old woman is undergoing thyroidectomy. The external laryngeal nerve may be injured whilst ligating this artery during the procedure due to its close relationship?

      Your Answer: Superior thyroid artery

      Explanation:

      The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland. This artery must be ligated at the thyroid when conducting a thyroidectomy. If the artery is severed, but not ligated, it will bleed profusely. In order to gain control of the bleeding, the surgeon may need to extend the original incision laterally to ligate the artery at its origin at the external carotid artery. The external laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve courses in close proximity to the superior thyroid artery, making it at risk for injury during surgery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      28
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - Which of the following structure forms the floor of the posterior triangle of...

    Correct

    • Which of the following structure forms the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck:

      Your Answer: Prevertebral fascia

      Explanation:

      The posterior triangle (or lateral cervical region) is a region of the neck which has the following boundaries:
      Apex: Union of the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles at the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone
      Anterior: Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
      Posterior: Anterior border of the trapezius
      Base: Middle one third of the clavicle
      Roof: Investing layer of the deep cervical fascia
      Floor: The anterolateral portion of prevertebral fascia

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - A 25 year-old male patient was brought to the hospital due to a...

    Correct

    • A 25 year-old male patient was brought to the hospital due to a vehicular accident. A skull x-ray was done which revealed a fracture along the base of the middle cranial fossa. The patient has no sense of touch over the skin over his cheek and chin. Injury to the maxillary and the mandibular nerves is suspected. In which foramina do these two affected sensory branches leave the cranial cavity.

      Your Answer: Foramen rotundum and foramen ovale

      Explanation:

      The patient’s clinical manifestations suggests an injury to the maxillary and mandibular nerves. The maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) passes through and exits the skull via the pterygopalatine fossa and the foramen rotundum. At the base of the skull the foramen ovale (Latin: oval window) is one of the larger of the several holes (the foramina) that transmit nerves through the skull. The foramen ovale is situated in the posterior part of the sphenoid bone, posterolateral to the foramen rotundum. The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve, motor root of the trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery (small meningeal or paradural branch, sometimes derived from the middle meningeal artery), lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and an emissary vein connecting the cavernous sinus with the pterygoid plexus of veins. Occasionally it will also carry the anterior trunk of the middle meningeal vein.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.6
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - To reach the oral vestibule, the parotid duct must pierce this muscle: ...

    Correct

    • To reach the oral vestibule, the parotid duct must pierce this muscle:

      Your Answer: Buccinator muscle

      Explanation:

      The parotid duct or Stensen duct is a duct and the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland, the parotid gland into the mouth. The parotid duct is formed when several interlobular ducts—the largest ducts inside the parotid gland join. It emerges from the gland and runs forward along the lateral side of the masseter muscle. In this course, the duct is surrounded by the buccal fat pad. It takes a steep turn at the border of the masseter and passes through the buccinator muscle, opening into the vestibule of the mouth, between the cheek and the gums, at the parotid papilla, which lies across the second superior molar tooth.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.9
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - A 45 year-old female presents with a drooping eyelid. During examination, the same...

    Correct

    • A 45 year-old female presents with a drooping eyelid. During examination, the same pupil of the patient is found to be dilated. Which nerve could be involve in this case?

      Your Answer: Oculomotor nerve

      Explanation:

      The oculomotor nerve controls most of the eye muscles. It also controls the constriction of the pupils and thickening of the lens of the eye. This can be tested in two main ways. By moving a finger toward a person’s face to induce accommodation, their pupils should constrict or shining a light into one eye should result in equal constriction of the other eye. The neurons in the optic nerve decussate in the optic chiasm with some crossing to the contralateral optic nerve tract. This is the basis of the swinging-flashlight test. Loss of accommodation and continued pupillary dilation can indicate the presence of a lesion of the oculomotor nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      13.1
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - A 50 year-old man, who sustained a head injury experienced sudden onset of...

    Correct

    • A 50 year-old man, who sustained a head injury experienced sudden onset of horizontal double vision. He is diagnosed with lateral rectus palsy. Which of the following nerves is affected in this condition?

      Your Answer: Abducent

      Explanation:

      The lateral rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It is responsible for abduction and is the only muscle that is innervated by the abducens nerve (CN VI).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      21.3
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - What principal artery that supplies the meninges is susceptible to rupture following trauma...

    Correct

    • What principal artery that supplies the meninges is susceptible to rupture following trauma to the side of the head over the temporal region:

      Your Answer: Middle meningeal artery

      Explanation:

      The middle meningeal artery normally arises from the first or mandibular segment of the maxillary artery. The artery runs in a groove on the inside of the cranium, this can clearly be seen on a lateral skull X-ray. An injured middle meningeal artery is the most common cause of an epidural hematoma.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      13.2
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - The basilar artery arises from the confluence of which two arteries? ...

    Correct

    • The basilar artery arises from the confluence of which two arteries?

      Your Answer: Vertebral

      Explanation:

      The basilar artery is part of the vertebrobasilar system. It is formed by the confluence of the two vertebral arteries which arise from the subclavian arteries. These two vertebral arteries merge at the level of cranial nerve VI at the junction between the pons and the medulla oblangata to form what is know as the basilar artery. This vertebrobasilar system supplies the upper spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and posterior part of brain.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.5
      Seconds
  • Question 31 - The tympanic membrane is a thin semi-transparent membrane that separates the tympanic cavity...

    Correct

    • The tympanic membrane is a thin semi-transparent membrane that separates the tympanic cavity from the bottom of the external acoustic meatus. The interior of the tympanic membrane is innervated by which of the following cranial nerves?

      Your Answer: Glossopharyngeal

      Explanation:

      The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information. The glossopharyngeal nerve has five distinct general functions:

      – The branchial motor (special visceral efferent), supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle.

      – The visceral motor (general visceral efferent), provides parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland via the otic ganglion.

      – The visceral sensory (general visceral afferent), carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and carotid body.

      – The general sensory (general somatic afferent), provides general sensory information from the inner surface of the tympanic membrane, upper pharynx (GVA), and the posterior one-third of the tongue.

      – The visceral afferent (special visceral afferent), provides taste sensation from the posterior one-third of the tongue, including the circumvallate papillae.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      15.5
      Seconds
  • Question 32 - A patient sustained an injury to the facial nerve after it emerges from...

    Correct

    • A patient sustained an injury to the facial nerve after it emerges from the stylomastoid foramen. What is the clinical impact of this injury?

      Your Answer: Facial expression

      Explanation:

      The facial nerve is the seventh of the twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla. It controls the muscles of facial expression and supplies taste fibres to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibres to several head and neck ganglia. Its branches and distribution are as follows:

      Inside the facial canal (proximal to the stylomastoid foramen):

      – Greater petrosal nerve – provides parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland, as well as special taste sensory fibres to the palate via the nerve of pterygoid canal

      – Nerve to stapedius – provides motor innervation for the stapedius muscle in the middle ear

      – Chord tympani – provides parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands and special sensory taste fibres for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue

      Outside the skull (distal to the stylomastoid foramen):

      – Posterior auricular nerve – controls the movements of some of the scalp muscles around the ear

      – Five major facial branches (in the parotid gland), from top to bottom: temporal branch, zygomatic branch, buccal branch, marginal mandibular branch and cervical branch. From the description given above it is obvious that injury to the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen will affect facial expression.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      15.1
      Seconds
  • Question 33 - From which source does the lingual artery originate? ...

    Correct

    • From which source does the lingual artery originate?

      Your Answer: External carotid

      Explanation:

      The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located easily on the lower surface of the tongue. The terminal branch of the lingual artery is the deep lingual artery. On its course the lingual artery gives off side branches: dorsal lingual branches that supply the dorsum of the tongue till the epiglottis; sublingual artery that supplies the sublingual gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.9
      Seconds
  • Question 34 - The left lateral pterygoid muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. When...

    Correct

    • The left lateral pterygoid muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. When acting alone, it will shift the mandible towards which direction?

      Your Answer: Laterally, to the right

      Explanation:

      The lateral pterygoid or external pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads. It lies superiorly to the medial pterygoid. When acting alone, it will shift the mandible laterally and to the right.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      10.7
      Seconds
  • Question 35 - Which of the following structure contains the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the...

    Correct

    • Which of the following structure contains the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle?

      Your Answer: Edinger–Westphal nucleus

      Explanation:

      The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.2
      Seconds
  • Question 36 - Which of the following arteries is the posterior branch of the external carotid...

    Correct

    • Which of the following arteries is the posterior branch of the external carotid artery?

      Your Answer: Superficial temporal

      Explanation:

      The external carotid artery is a branch of the common carotid artery that supplies parts of the neck, head and face. It branches off from the common carotid artery at the level of the thyroid cartilage. The external carotid, at the level of the mandible divides into the maxillary artery and the superficial temporal. The superficial temporal artery is the posterior branch of these two arteries. It starts off, somewhat, as a continuation of the external carotid artery at the substance of the parotid gland. Anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries are branches of the internal carotid artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.8
      Seconds
  • Question 37 - Which of the following muscles winds around the pterygoid hamulus? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following muscles winds around the pterygoid hamulus?

      Your Answer: Tensor veli palatini

      Explanation:

      The tensor veli palatini tenses the soft palate and by doing so, assists the levator veli palatini in elevating the palate to occlude and prevent entry of food into the nasopharynx during swallowing. It arises by a flat lamella from the scaphoid fossa at the base of the medial pterygoid plate, from the spina angularis of the sphenoid and from the lateral wall of the cartilage of the auditory tube. Descending vertically between the medial pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid muscle, it ends in a tendon which winds around the pterygoid hamulus, being retained in this situation by some of the fibres of origin of the medial pterygoid muscle. Between the tendon and the hamulus is a small bursa. The tendon then passes medialward and is inserted onto the palatine aponeurosis and the surface behind the transverse ridge on the horizontal part of the palatine bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.8
      Seconds
  • Question 38 - Which of the following foramina will the ophthalmic artery pass through in order...

    Correct

    • Which of the following foramina will the ophthalmic artery pass through in order to reach the eye?

      Your Answer: Optic canal

      Explanation:

      The optic foramen is the opening to the optic canal. The canal is located in the sphenoid bone; it is bounded medially by the body of the sphenoid and laterally by the lesser wing of the sphenoid. The superior surface of the sphenoid bone is bounded behind by a ridge, which forms the anterior border of a narrow, transverse groove, the chiasmatic groove (optic groove). The groove ends on either side in the optic foramen, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery into the orbital cavity. Compared to the optic nerve, the ophthalmic artery is located inferolaterally within the canal.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.3
      Seconds
  • Question 39 - Into which vein does the left and right inferior thyroid veins drain? ...

    Correct

    • Into which vein does the left and right inferior thyroid veins drain?

      Your Answer: Brachiocephalic vein

      Explanation:

      The brachiocephalic vein is formed by the confluence of the subclavian and internal jugular veins. In addition it receives drainage from: the left and right internal thoracic veins (also called internal mammary veins), left and right inferior thyroid veins and the left superior intercostal vein.
      The superior thyroid veins and middle thyroid veins drain into the internal jugular vein. The right and left inferior thyroid veins to drain into their respective brachiocephalic veins (right and left).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.2
      Seconds
  • Question 40 - The pterion is clinically significant as it marks an area of weakness on...

    Correct

    • The pterion is clinically significant as it marks an area of weakness on the skull. What structure lies beneath it?

      Your Answer: Anterior branches of the middle meningeal artery

      Explanation:

      The pterion is the area where four bones, the parietal, frontal, greater wing of sphenoid and the squamous part of the temporal bone meet. It overlies the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery on the internal aspect of the skull. The pterion is the weakest part of the skull. Slight trauma to this region can cause extradural hematoma.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.3
      Seconds
  • Question 41 - A 35 year old male patient sustained a traumatic head injury. The patient...

    Correct

    • A 35 year old male patient sustained a traumatic head injury. The patient had loss of consciousness, woke up momentarily when he was in the emergency room but became drowsy and comatose a few hours after. CT scan of the brain showed accumulation of blood between the dura and the cranial bone on the left side of his head. What type of haemorrhage did the patient have?

      Your Answer: Epidural

      Explanation:

      Epidural hematoma, also known as epidural bleeding, is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a build-up of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull. The spinal cord is also covered by a layer of dura mater, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the spinal column. Often due to trauma, the condition is potentially deadly because the build-up of blood may increase pressure in the intracranial space, compressing delicate brain tissue, and causing brain shift. The condition is present in one to three percent of head injuries. Around 15–20% of epidural hematomas are fatal.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.6
      Seconds
  • Question 42 - Which of these foramen is located at the base of the skull and...

    Correct

    • Which of these foramen is located at the base of the skull and transmits the accessory meningeal artery?

      Your Answer: Foramen ovale

      Explanation:

      At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is one of the larger of the several holes that transmit nerves through the skull. The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve, motor root of the trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, emissary vein connecting the cavernous sinus with the pterygoid plexus of veins and occasionally the anterior trunk of the middle meningeal vein.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.8
      Seconds
  • Question 43 - A 46 -year old patient diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis, was to undergo surgery...

    Correct

    • A 46 -year old patient diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis, was to undergo surgery to improve drainage from his frontal sinus to the nose. Which is a route that one would take to enter into the frontal sinus through the nasal cavity?

      Your Answer: Middle meatus

      Explanation:

      The middle meatus is a nasal passageway located inferior to the middle concha and superior to the inferior concha. On the superior aspect of this meatus is a bulge produced by the middle ethmoidal cells known as the bulla ethmoidalis. Below this bulge is a curved fissure, the hiatus semilunaris, which is also bordered inferiorly by the edge of the uncinate process of the ethmoid. It is through this curved fissure, hiatus semilunaris, that the middle meatus communicates with the frontal sinus. It first forms a communication with a curved passage way known as the infundibulum. The infundibulum anteriorly communicates with the anterior ethmoidal cells and continues upward as the frontonasal duct into the frontal sinus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.9
      Seconds
  • Question 44 - What is the innervation of the laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal...

    Correct

    • What is the innervation of the laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal cord?

      Your Answer: Recurrent laryngeal nerve

      Explanation:

      Motor innervation to all other muscles of the larynx and sensory innervation to the subglottis is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      51.9
      Seconds
  • Question 45 - Injury of the ventral rami at this cervical spinal level will result in...

    Correct

    • Injury of the ventral rami at this cervical spinal level will result in paralysis of the rectus capitis anterior muscle:

      Your Answer: C1, C2

      Explanation:

      The rectus capitis anterior is a short, flat muscle, situated immediately behind the upper part of the longus capitis. It is also known as the obliquus capitis superior. It aids in flexion of the head and the neck. Nerve supple is from C1 and C2.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.3
      Seconds
  • Question 46 - Where is the foramen ovale located? ...

    Correct

    • Where is the foramen ovale located?

      Your Answer: Sphenoid

      Explanation:

      The foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the cavernous sinuses and pterygoid plexus, otic ganglion, and occasionally the nervus spinosus and lesser petrosal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.5
      Seconds
  • Question 47 - Which of the following muscle divide the posterior triangle of the neck into...

    Correct

    • Which of the following muscle divide the posterior triangle of the neck into the occipital and the subclavian triangle?

      Your Answer: Inferior belly of the omohyoid

      Explanation:

      The posterior triangle (or lateral cervical region) is a region of the neck bounded in front by the sternocleidomastoid; behind, by the anterior margin of the trapezius; inferiorly by the middle third of the clavicle and superiorly by the occipital bone. The posterior triangle is crossed, about 2.5 cm above the clavicle, by the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle, which divides the space into two triangles: an upper or occipital triangle and a lower or subclavian triangle (or supraclavicular triangle).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.3
      Seconds
  • Question 48 - The mandibular nerve, which is the largest of the 3 divisions of the...

    Correct

    • The mandibular nerve, which is the largest of the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve, exits the cranial cavity through which foramen?

      Your Answer: Foramen ovale

      Explanation:

      At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is one of the larger of the several holes that transmit nerves through the skull. The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve, motor root of the trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, emissary vein connecting the cavernous sinus with the pterygoid plexus of veins and occasionally the anterior trunk of the middle meningeal vein.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      12.4
      Seconds
  • Question 49 - Which foramen contains the vertebral artery? ...

    Correct

    • Which foramen contains the vertebral artery?

      Your Answer: Foramen magnum

      Explanation:

      The foramen magnum is found in the most inferior part of the posterior cranial fossa. It is traversed by vital structures including the medulla oblongata. Its contents include the following: medulla oblongata, meninges, spinal root of the accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, anterior and posterior spinal arteries, tectorial membrane and alar ligaments.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.2
      Seconds
  • Question 50 - Where is the mental foramen located? ...

    Correct

    • Where is the mental foramen located?

      Your Answer: In the mandible

      Explanation:

      The mental foramen is found bilaterally on the anterior surface of the mandible adjacent to the second premolar tooth. The mental nerve and terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and mental artery leave the mandibular canal through it.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.5
      Seconds
  • Question 51 - The collaborative effort of the lateral pterygoid muscles produces which action on the...

    Correct

    • The collaborative effort of the lateral pterygoid muscles produces which action on the jaw?

      Your Answer: Protrude the mandible

      Explanation:

      The combined effort of the lateral pterygoid muscles results in the protrusion of the mandible. The lateral pterygoid muscle is a muscle of mastication located superiorly to the medial pterygoid muscle and has two heads. The superior head originates on the infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, and the inferior head on the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. The insertion of this muscle is on the front margin of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint. The unilateral contraction of the pterygoid muscle results in the laterotrusion of the mandible. It is important to note that the lateral pterygoid muscle is the only muscle of mastication that can open the jaw.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.5
      Seconds
  • Question 52 - Which of the cranial nerves is responsible for touch sensation on the skin...

    Correct

    • Which of the cranial nerves is responsible for touch sensation on the skin over the maxilla region and the mandible?

      Your Answer: Trigeminal

      Explanation:

      The sensation of the face is provided by the trigeminal nerve which is cranial nerve V. It is also responsible for other motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches; the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve((V2) and the mandibular nerve (V3). These three branches exit the skull through separate foramina, namely; the superior orbital fissure, the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale respectively. The mnemonic for this is ‘Standing room only’. The sensory fibres of the maxillary nerve are distributed to the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, and parts of the meninges. The sensory fibres of the mandibular nerve are distributed to the lower lip, the lower teeth and gums, the floor of the mouth, the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the chin and jaw (except the angle of the jaw, which is supplied by C2–C3), parts of the external ear, and parts of the meninges. The mandibular nerve carries touch/ position and pain/temperature sensation from the mouth. The sensory fibres of the ophthalmic nerve are distributed to the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels). The sensory fibres of the maxillary nerve are distributed to the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, and parts of the meninges.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.9
      Seconds
  • Question 53 - Which of the following statements regarding the arteries in the neck are TRUE?...

    Correct

    • Which of the following statements regarding the arteries in the neck are TRUE?

      Your Answer: The thyrocervical trunk typically gives rise to the inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery and suprascapular artery

      Explanation:

      The thyrocervical trunk is one of the three branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives numerous branches which supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles and scapular anastomoses. The vertebral arteries are major arteries of the neck. They arise as branches from the subclavian arteries and merge to form the single midline basilar artery. The carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.6
      Seconds
  • Question 54 - Both the arytenoid muscles and the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles perform this action on...

    Correct

    • Both the arytenoid muscles and the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles perform this action on the glottis:

      Your Answer: Adduction

      Explanation:

      Both the arytenoid and the cricoartenoid muscles close the glottis. The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles extend from the lateral cricoid cartilage to the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages medially, these muscles adduct the vocal cords and thereby close the rima glottidis. The arytenoid muscle adducts or approximates the arytenoid cartilages, and thus closes the aperture of the glottis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.6
      Seconds
  • Question 55 - What is the action of the muscle of the orbit that originates on...

    Correct

    • What is the action of the muscle of the orbit that originates on the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, just above the optic foramen?

      Your Answer: Elevation of the upper eyelid

      Explanation:

      The levator palpebrae superioris is the muscle in the orbit that elevates the superior (upper) eyelid. The levator palpebrae superioris originates on the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, just above the optic foramen and receives somatic motor input from the ipsilateral superior division of the oculomotor nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.5
      Seconds
  • Question 56 - The ostium of the maxillary sinus opens into which of the following structures?...

    Correct

    • The ostium of the maxillary sinus opens into which of the following structures?

      Your Answer: Middle meatus

      Explanation:

      The maxillary sinuses usually develop symmetrically. The maxillary sinus ostium drains into the infundibulum which joins the hiatus semilunaris and drains into the middle meatus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.2
      Seconds
  • Question 57 - The cranial nerves of the brain provide motor and sensory innervation to the...

    Correct

    • The cranial nerves of the brain provide motor and sensory innervation to the structures of the head and neck. Which of the following cranial nerves provide only motor innervation?

      Your Answer: Abducens

      Explanation:

      The cranial nerves emerge directly from the brain and the brain stem. They provide sensory, motor or both motor and sensory innervation. Here is a summary of the cranial nerves and their function:

      Olfactory – Purely sensory

      Optic – Sensory

      Oculomotor – Mainly motor

      Trochlear – Motor

      Trigeminal – Both sensory and motor

      Abducens – Mainly motor

      Facial – Both sensory and motor

      vestibulocochlear – Mostly sensory

      Glossopharyngeal – Both sensory and motor

      Vagus – Both sensory and motor

      Accessory – Mainly motor

      Hypoglossal – Mainly motor

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9.1
      Seconds
  • Question 58 - A growing tumour is impinging on the lingual artery in the floor of...

    Correct

    • A growing tumour is impinging on the lingual artery in the floor of the mouth. Which structure will experience decreased blood flow?

      Your Answer: The sublingual gland

      Explanation:

      The paired sublingual glands are major salivary glands in the mouth. They are the smallest, most diffuse, and the only unencapsulated major salivary glands. They provide only 3-5% of the total salivary volume. The gland receives its blood supply from the sublingual and submental arteries. The sublingual artery is a branch of the lingual artery, thus damage to the lingual artery will decrease the blood flow to the sublingual gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.9
      Seconds
  • Question 59 - A 46-year old female patient experienced a stroke that affected her glossopharyngeal nerve....

    Correct

    • A 46-year old female patient experienced a stroke that affected her glossopharyngeal nerve. Damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve would most likely:

      Your Answer: Result in general sensory deficit to the pharynx

      Explanation:

      The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) has many functions which include:

      – Contributes to the pharyngeal plexus

      – Receiving general somatic sensory fibres from the tonsils, pharynx, the middle ear and the posterior third of the tongue.

      – supplies motor fibres to only one muscle; the stylopharyngeus muscle.

      – provides parasympathetic fibres to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion.

      – Receives visceral sensory fibres from the carotid bodies & carotid sinus.

      – Receives special visceral sensory fibres from the posterior third of the tongue.

      The above functions will directly be affected by the damage of the glossopharyngeal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.3
      Seconds
  • Question 60 - The otic ganglion receives its preganglionic sympathetic fibres from which of the following...

    Correct

    • The otic ganglion receives its preganglionic sympathetic fibres from which of the following nerves?

      Your Answer: Glossopharyngeal nerve

      Explanation:

      The otic ganglion is a small (2–3 mm), oval shaped, flattened parasympathetic ganglion of a reddish-grey colour, located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa and on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve. The preganglionic parasympathetic fibres originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve. They leave the glossopharyngeal nerve by its tympanic branch and then pass via the tympanic plexus and the lesser petrosal nerve to the otic ganglion. Here, the fibres synapse, and the postganglionic fibres pass by communicating branches to the auriculotemporal nerve, which conveys them to the parotid gland. They produce vasodilator and secretomotor effects.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3
      Seconds
  • Question 61 - Inside the palatoglossal arch is a muscle. Which nerve innervates this muscle? ...

    Correct

    • Inside the palatoglossal arch is a muscle. Which nerve innervates this muscle?

      Your Answer: X

      Explanation:

      The palatoglossal arch contains the palatoglossal muscle which is innervated by the vagus nerve which is the tenth cranial nerve. So the correct answer is X

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.7
      Seconds
  • Question 62 - The dural venous sinuses are venous channels that drain blood from the brain....

    Correct

    • The dural venous sinuses are venous channels that drain blood from the brain. This sinuses are located between which structures?

      Your Answer: Meningeal and periosteal layers of the dura mater

      Explanation:

      The dural venous sinuses lies between the periosteal and meningeal layer of the dura mater. Dural venous sinuses is unique because it does not run parallel with arteries and allows bidirectional flow of blood intracranially as it is valve-less.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5
      Seconds
  • Question 63 - Cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve, innervates which one of the following muscles...

    Correct

    • Cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve, innervates which one of the following muscles in the list?

      Your Answer: Hyoglossus

      Explanation:

      The cranial nerve XII, hypoglossal nerve, innervates all the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus. The muscles of the tongue innervated by this nerve include the extrinsic muscles; hyoglossus, styloglossus, genioglossus and the intrinsic muscles; superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, vertical and transverse muscles. The salpingopharyngeus, palatoglossus and the palatopharyngeus muscles are innervated by the vagus nerve. The stylopharyngeus muscle is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX). The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve. Finally, the geniohyoid muscle is innervated by the olfactory nerve (CN I) via the hypoglossal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.5
      Seconds
  • Question 64 - A patient is diagnosed with a tumour of the parotid gland. During surgical...

    Correct

    • A patient is diagnosed with a tumour of the parotid gland. During surgical removal of the gland, which artery is vulnerable to injury?

      Your Answer: External carotid artery

      Explanation:

      The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it splits into the external and internal carotid artery. It supplies blood to the face and neck. The external carotid artery begins opposite the upper border of the thyroid cartilage and, taking a slightly curved course, passes upward and forward and then inclines backward to the space behind the neck of the mandible, where it divides into the superficial temporal and internal maxillary arteries. It rapidly diminishes in size in its course up the neck, owing to the number and large size of the branches given off from it. At its origin, this artery is more superficial and placed nearer the midline than the internal carotid and is contained within the carotid triangle. The external carotid artery is covered by the skin, superficial fascia, platysma, deep fascia and anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid. It is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, by the lingual, ranine, common facial and superior thyroid veins; and by the digastric and stylohyoid; higher up it passes deeply into the substance of the parotid gland, where it lies deep to the facial nerve and the junction of the temporal and internal maxillary veins. It is here that it is in danger during surgery of the parotid gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9.2
      Seconds
  • Question 65 - A 30 year-old male patient sustained a sharp blow to the right side...

    Correct

    • A 30 year-old male patient sustained a sharp blow to the right side of the head, over the temporal region during a vehicular accident. This resulted to the rupture of the principal artery that supplies the meninges. Which artery is affected?

      Your Answer: Middle meningeal artery

      Explanation:

      The middle meningeal artery is typically the third branch of the first part of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. After branching off the maxillary artery in the infratemporal fossa, it runs through the foramen spinosum to supply the dura mater and the calvaria. The middle meningeal artery is the largest of the three (paired) arteries that supply the meninges, the others being the anterior meningeal artery and the posterior meningeal artery. The anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery runs beneath the pterion. It is vulnerable to injury at this point, where the skull is thin. Rupture of the artery may give rise to an epidural hematoma .An injured middle meningeal artery is the most common cause of an epidural hematoma.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.1
      Seconds
  • Question 66 - The vagus nerve passes through which of the following foramen? ...

    Correct

    • The vagus nerve passes through which of the following foramen?

      Your Answer: Jugular foramen

      Explanation:

      The jugular foramen is a large foramen in the base of the skull. It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and behind by the occipital bone. Cranial nerves IX, X, and XI and the internal jugular vein pass through the jugular foramen.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5
      Seconds
  • Question 67 - Which of the following muscles is solely contained in the anterior triangle of...

    Correct

    • Which of the following muscles is solely contained in the anterior triangle of the neck and divides the anterior triangle into three smaller triangles?

      Your Answer: Digastric

      Explanation:

      The digastric muscle is a small muscle located under the jaw. It lies below the body of the mandible, and extends, in a curved form, from the mastoid process to the symphysis menti. The digastric divides the anterior triangle of the neck into three smaller triangles:

      – The submaxillary triangle, bounded above by the lower border of the body of the mandible and a line drawn from its angle to the sternocleidomastoid, below by the posterior belly of the digastric and the stylohyoid and in front by the anterior belly of the digastric

      – The carotid triangle, bounded above by the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid, behind by the sternocleidomastoid and below by the omohyoid

      – The suprahyoid or submental triangle, bounded laterally by the anterior belly of the digastric, medially by the midline of the neck from the hyoid bone to the symphysis menti and inferiorly by the body of the hyoid bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9
      Seconds
  • Question 68 - Lateral medullary syndrome, also known as Wallenberg's syndrome is a neurological condition caused...

    Correct

    • Lateral medullary syndrome, also known as Wallenberg's syndrome is a neurological condition caused by ischaemia in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata and is commonly associated with numerous neurological symptoms. Which of the following arteries when occluded leads to this condition?

      Your Answer: Posterior inferior cerebellar

      Explanation:

      The lateral medullary syndrome or Wallenberg’s disease is also known as posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome (PICA). This syndrome is a clinical manifestation of the occlusion of the posterior cerebellar artery that results in symptoms of infarction of the lateral medullary oblongata. Other arteries that contribute to blood flow in to this region such are the vertebral artery, superior middle cerebellar and inferior medullary arteries can also result to this syndrome when occluded.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.7
      Seconds
  • Question 69 - Which of the following muscles is innervated by the inferior branch of the...

    Correct

    • Which of the following muscles is innervated by the inferior branch of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve?

      Your Answer: Posterior cricoarytenoid

      Explanation:

      The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, which is the sole abductor of the vocal folds, receives its innervation from the inferior laryngeal nerve which is a continuation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      17.4
      Seconds
  • Question 70 - The occipital artery is accompanied by which nerve as it arises from the...

    Correct

    • The occipital artery is accompanied by which nerve as it arises from the external carotid artery?

      Your Answer: Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

      Explanation:

      Three main types of variations in the relations of the occipital artery and the hypoglossal nerve are found according to the level at which the nerve crosses the external carotid artery and the point of origin of the occipital artery. In Type I, the hypoglossal nerve crosses the external carotid artery inferior to the origin of the occipital artery; in Type II, the nerve crosses the external carotid artery at the level of origin of the occipital artery; and in Type III, it crosses superior to that level. In Type III the occipital artery makes a loop around the hypoglossal nerve and is in a position to pull and exert pressure on the nerve. This possibility should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis of peripheral paresis or paralysis of the tongue and during surgery in this area.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      42.4
      Seconds
  • Question 71 - This structure divides the space between the lens and the cornea into the...

    Correct

    • This structure divides the space between the lens and the cornea into the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye:

      Your Answer: The iris

      Explanation:

      The iris divides the space between the lens and the cornea into an anterior and a posterior chamber. The anterior cavity is filled with watery aqueous fluid, and the posterior cavity with a gel-like vitreous fluid. The anterior chamber of the eye is bounded in front by the posterior surface of the cornea; behind by the front of the iris and the central part of the lens. The posterior chamber is a narrow gap behind the peripheral part of the iris and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      18.8
      Seconds
  • Question 72 - The thyroid gland is a large ductless gland located in which part of...

    Correct

    • The thyroid gland is a large ductless gland located in which part of the neck?

      Your Answer: Visceral space

      Explanation:

      The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is situated at the front and sides of the neck in the visceral space.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.8
      Seconds
  • Question 73 - During a surgical procedure involving the carotid artery, which nerve in the cervical...

    Correct

    • During a surgical procedure involving the carotid artery, which nerve in the cervical plexus of nerves that is embedded in the carotid sheath is most susceptible to injury?

      Your Answer: Ansa cervicalis

      Explanation:

      The ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. They lie superficial to the internal jugular vein in the carotid triangle. Branches from the ansa cervicalis innervate the sternohyoid, sternothyroid and the inferior belly of the omohyoid. The superior root of the ansa cervicalis is formed by a branch of spinal nerve C1. These nerve fibres travel in the hypoglossal nerve before leaving to form the superior root. The superior root goes around the occipital artery and then descends embedded in the carotid sheath. It sends a branch off to the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle and is then joined by the inferior root. The inferior root is formed by fibres from spinal nerves C2 and C3.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.4
      Seconds
  • Question 74 - A patient underwent surgical excision of mass in the right carotid triangle. One...

    Correct

    • A patient underwent surgical excision of mass in the right carotid triangle. One day after the surgery patient complained of numbness of the skin over the right side of the neck. Injury to the cervical plexus of nerves is suspected. What is the possible nerve affected in this patient?

      Your Answer: Transverse cervical

      Explanation:

      The transverse cervical nerve (superficial cervical or cutaneous cervical) arises from the second and third spinal nerves, turns around the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid and, passing obliquely forward beneath the external jugular vein to the anterior border of the muscle, it perforates the deep cervical fascia, and divides beneath the platysma into the ascending and descending branches. It provides cutaneous innervation to this area.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      14.6
      Seconds
  • Question 75 - The third branch of the maxillary artery lies in which fossa? ...

    Correct

    • The third branch of the maxillary artery lies in which fossa?

      Your Answer: Pterygopalatine fossa

      Explanation:

      The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face. It branches from the external carotid artery just deep to the neck of the mandible. It is divided into three portions:

      – The first or mandibular portion (or bony portion) passes horizontally forward, between the neck of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament.

      – The second or pterygoid portion (or muscular portion) runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible, on the surface of the lateral pterygoid muscle; it then passes between the two heads of origin of this muscle and enters the fossa.

      – The third portion lies in the pterygopalatine fossa in relation to the pterygopalatine ganglion. This is considered the terminal branch of the maxillary artery. Branches from the third portion includes: the sphenopalatine artery, descending palatine artery, infraorbital artery, posterior superior alveolar artery, artery of pterygoid canal, pharyngeal artery, middle superior alveolar artery and anterior superior alveolar artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.1
      Seconds
  • Question 76 - A tumour on the floor of the fourth ventricle is most likely to...

    Correct

    • A tumour on the floor of the fourth ventricle is most likely to compress which of the following cranial nerve nuclei?

      Your Answer: Abducent

      Explanation:

      The fourth ventricle, is a cavity of the brains ventricular system in which the cerebrospinal fluid is formed. This cavity is located behind the pons and upper half of the medulla oblongata. It extends from the cerebral aqueduct, to its connection to the third ventricle, and to the obex- which is the caudal tip of the fourth ventricle. The floor of the fourth ventricle consists of three parts – superior, intermediate and inferior. This inferior aspect of the floor of the fourth ventricle has the nucleus of the abducens nerve, CN VI which is looped over by the facial nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6
      Seconds
  • Question 77 - What is the innervation of the tensor tympani muscle? ...

    Correct

    • What is the innervation of the tensor tympani muscle?

      Your Answer: Trigeminal nerve

      Explanation:

      The tensor veli palatini is innervated by the medial pterygoid nerve, a branch of mandibular nerve, the third branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) – the only muscle of the palate not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus, which is formed by the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.1
      Seconds
  • Question 78 - A CT scan of 65 year old male patient at an outpatient clinic...

    Correct

    • A CT scan of 65 year old male patient at an outpatient clinic suggested a bone tumour at the stylomastoid foramen. Which of the following cranial nerves is likely to be affected with this tumour?

      Your Answer: VII

      Explanation:

      Cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve, is found in the internal acoustic canal and runs through this canal into the facial canal before exiting through the stylomastoid foramen. In the case of a bone tumour at the stylomastoid process, the facial nerve is the nerve that will most likely be affected.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.5
      Seconds
  • Question 79 - The inferior palpebral nerve ascends behind the orbicularis oculi. What is the terminal...

    Correct

    • The inferior palpebral nerve ascends behind the orbicularis oculi. What is the terminal branch of the inferior palpebral nerve?

      Your Answer: Infraorbital nerve

      Explanation:

      The inferior palpebral nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve. It supplies the skin and conjunctiva of the lower eyelid.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.1
      Seconds
  • Question 80 - During thyroidectomy, the recurrent laryngeal nerves are vulnerable to injury. Which of the...

    Correct

    • During thyroidectomy, the recurrent laryngeal nerves are vulnerable to injury. Which of the following muscles will not be affected in cases where the recurrent laryngeal nerve is severed?

      Your Answer: Cricothyroid

      Explanation:

      All muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve except for the cricothyroid which is supplied by the vagus nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.8
      Seconds
  • Question 81 - A patient under went repair of a lingual artery aneurysm in the floor...

    Correct

    • A patient under went repair of a lingual artery aneurysm in the floor of the mouth. During surgical dissection from the inside of the mouth which muscle would you have to pass through to reach the main portion of the lingual artery?

      Your Answer: Hyoglossus

      Explanation:

      The lingual artery first runs obliquely upward and medialward to the greater horns of the hyoid bone. It then curves downward and forward, forming a loop which is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, and passing beneath the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle it runs horizontally forward, beneath the hyoglossus, and finally, ascending almost perpendicularly to the tongue, turns forward on its lower surface as far as the tip, to become the deep lingual artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      10.5
      Seconds
  • Question 82 - Which muscle is responsible for directing the gaze downward when the eye is...

    Correct

    • Which muscle is responsible for directing the gaze downward when the eye is abducted?

      Your Answer: Inferior rectus muscle

      Explanation:

      The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. As with most of the muscles of the orbit, it is innervated by the inferior division of oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III). It depresses, adducts, and helps laterally rotate the eye.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.9
      Seconds
  • Question 83 - The thyrocervical trunk branches into which artery that passes upward and in front...

    Correct

    • The thyrocervical trunk branches into which artery that passes upward and in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle:

      Your Answer: Inferior thyroid

      Explanation:

      The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.4
      Seconds
  • Question 84 - The posterior boundary of the carotid triangle is bounded by which of the...

    Correct

    • The posterior boundary of the carotid triangle is bounded by which of the following muscles?

      Your Answer: Sternocleidomastoid

      Explanation:

      The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck. It is bounded superiorly by the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, antero-inferiorly by the superior belly of omohyoid and posteriorly by the sternocleidomastoid. The floor is formed by the thyrohyoid, hyoglossus, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors and the roof is formed by the skin, superficial fascia, platysma and deep fascia.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.7
      Seconds
  • Question 85 - Which of the following structures is not easily palpable? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following structures is not easily palpable?

      Your Answer: Styloid process of the temporal bone

      Explanation:

      The styloid process is a thin, pointed process that projects antero-inferiorly from the base of the petrous temporal bone. It can vary in length from a short, stubby process to a slender, four to five centimetre rod. It forms from the cranial elements of the second pharyngeal arch. The tympanic plate of the temporal bone ensheathes the base of this process. The pointed, projecting portion of the process provides attachment to the stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments, and to three muscles – the styloglossus, stylohyoid, and stylopharyngeus. As the styloid process is covered by the various muscles, it is not easily palpable in live subjects.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5.5
      Seconds
  • Question 86 - The pterygoid plexus receives tributaries from which of the following veins? ...

    Correct

    • The pterygoid plexus receives tributaries from which of the following veins?

      Your Answer: Maxillary vein

      Explanation:

      The pterygoid plexus of veins is the main venous component associated with the infratemporal fossa. It receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the internal maxillary artery. This plexus communicates freely with the anterior facial vein; it also communicates with the cavernous sinus, by branches through the foramen of Vesalius, foramen ovale and foramen lacerum. The (internal) maxillary vein is a short trunk which accompanies the first part of the (internal) maxillary artery. It is formed by a confluence of the veins of the pterygoid plexus and passes backward between the sphenomandibular ligament and the neck of the mandible and unites with the temporal vein to form the posterior facial vein. It carries blood away from the infratemporal fossa.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.9
      Seconds
  • Question 87 - Which of the following statements regarding aqueous humour is correct? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following statements regarding aqueous humour is correct?

      Your Answer: Is the only source of nutrients for the lens of the eye

      Explanation:

      The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations. It is secreted from the ciliary epithelium and fills both the anterior and the posterior chambers of the eye. It maintains the intraocular pressure and inflates the globe of the eye. It is this hydrostatic pressure which keeps the eyeball in a roughly spherical shape and keeps the walls of the eyeball taut. It provides nutrition (e.g. amino acids and glucose) for the avascular ocular tissues; posterior cornea, trabecular meshwork, lens, and anterior vitreous. It may serve to transport ascorbate into the anterior segment to act as an antioxidant agent. The presence of immunoglobulins indicate its role in immune response to defend against pathogens.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.4
      Seconds
  • Question 88 - What is the name of the cutaneous branch of the posterior primary ramus...

    Correct

    • What is the name of the cutaneous branch of the posterior primary ramus of C2?

      Your Answer: Greater occipital nerve

      Explanation:

      The dorsal primary ramus of the spinal nerve C2 is the greater occipital nerve which provides cutaneous innervation to the skin of the back of the head. The ventral primary ramus gives off the great auricular nerve, the lesser occipital nerve and the ansa cervicalis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.6
      Seconds
  • Question 89 - The circle of Willis is one of the cerebrovascular safeguards comprised of the...

    Correct

    • The circle of Willis is one of the cerebrovascular safeguards comprised of the left and the right posterior communicating artery. Which of the following arteries in the brain is connected to the posterior cerebral artery by these posterior communicating arteries?

      Your Answer: Internal carotid artery

      Explanation:

      The Circle of Willis is an anastomosis of cerebral arteries that are located at the base of the brain. The Circle of Willis is one of the important safeguards that ensure back up of blood supply to parts of the brain in case of any cerebrovascular accident. The Circle of Willis is made up of an anterior portion of arteries including; the anterior cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral arteries are connected to the posterior portion of the circle of Willis by the anterior communicating artery. The posterior portion is made up of the posterior cerebral artery which branch off from the basilar artery. The posterior cerebral artery are connected to the anterior portion of the circle of Willis by the posterior communicating artery. The posterior communicating artery connects the posterior cerebral artery to the internal carotid artery. The circle of Willis receives blood supply from the left and right internal carotid arteries that continues as the middle cerebral artery and posteriorly from the two vertebral arteries that join to form the basilar artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4
      Seconds
  • Question 90 - The petrous part of the internal carotid artery is located inside of which...

    Correct

    • The petrous part of the internal carotid artery is located inside of which cranial bone?

      Your Answer: Temporal

      Explanation:

      The petrous segment, or C2, of the internal carotid is that which is inside the petrous part of the temporal bone. This segment extends until the foramen lacerum. The petrous portion classically has three sections: an ascending, or vertical portion; the genu, or bend; and the horizontal portion.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4
      Seconds
  • Question 91 - The circle of Willis is an arterial anastomosis in the base of the...

    Correct

    • The circle of Willis is an arterial anastomosis in the base of the brain and is one of the cerebrovascular safeguards in the brain. Where is the circle of Willis contained?

      Your Answer: Cisterna basalis

      Explanation:

      Cisterns refers to a system of intercommunicating pools formed by the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain and around the brainstem. Cisterna basalis/basal cistern (interpeduncular cistern) is found at the base of the brain between the two temporal lobes and it contains the arterial circle of Willis. The lumbar cistern is contained in the spinal canal while the foramen magna refers to the opening at the base of the skull though which the spinal cord enters into the skull.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.6
      Seconds
  • Question 92 - A 45 year old female had a stroke and was diagnosed with a...

    Correct

    • A 45 year old female had a stroke and was diagnosed with a homonymous hemianopsia. Which of the following structures was likely affected?

      Your Answer: Optic radiation

      Explanation:

      Hemianopia or hemianopsia, is the loss of vision of half of the eye or loss of half the visual field. Homonymous hemianopia is the loss of vision or blindness on half of the same side of both eyes (visual field) – either both lefts of the eyes or both rights of the eyes. This condition is mainly caused by cerebrovascular accidents like a stroke that affects the optic radiation.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      2.1
      Seconds
  • Question 93 - During a car accident, the side mirror shattered and a broken piece of...

    Incorrect

    • During a car accident, the side mirror shattered and a broken piece of glass severed the posterolateral aspect of the driver's neck. A physical examination reveals that the driver is unable to elevate the tip of his shoulder on the side that was injured. Which nerve was injured?

      Your Answer: Thoracodorsal

      Correct Answer: Accessory

      Explanation:

      The tip of the shoulder is formed by the acromion of the scapula. This part is moved by the trapezius muscle which is innervated by the accessory nerve. Damage to this nerve therefore will prevent the patient from lifting the tip of the shoulder.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      16.8
      Seconds
  • Question 94 - The muscle that stabilizes the stapes is innervated by which of the following...

    Correct

    • The muscle that stabilizes the stapes is innervated by which of the following nerves?

      Your Answer: Facial nerve

      Explanation:

      The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimetre in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes and is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4
      Seconds
  • Question 95 - The parasympathetic fibres of the oculomotor nerve was impinged due to a growing...

    Correct

    • The parasympathetic fibres of the oculomotor nerve was impinged due to a growing tumour. The function of which of the following structures will be affected?

      Your Answer: Ciliary muscle

      Explanation:

      The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CNIII). It offers motor and parasympathetic innervation to many of the ocular structures. The motor fibres innervate a number of the extraocular muscles. While the parasympathetic fibres supply the sphincter pupillae and the ciliary muscles of the eye, and the sympathetic fibres innervates the superior tarsal muscles.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      15.6
      Seconds
  • Question 96 - Which of the following nerves has its terminal branch at the supratrochlear nerve?...

    Correct

    • Which of the following nerves has its terminal branch at the supratrochlear nerve?

      Your Answer: Frontal

      Explanation:

      The supratrochlear nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve which comes from the ophthalmic division of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve). It passes above the superior oblique nerve and its descending filaments join the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. From the orbit, it exits between the supraorbital foramen and the pulley of the superior oblique. It then curves up to the forehead beneath the corrugator supercilli and frontalis muscle. It further divides into branches that supply sensory innervation to the bridge of the nose, medial part of the upper eyelid and medial forehead.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      5
      Seconds
  • Question 97 - Injury to this nerve may result in loss of sensation of the mandibular...

    Correct

    • Injury to this nerve may result in loss of sensation of the mandibular teeth and bone:

      Your Answer: Inferior alveolar nerve

      Explanation:

      The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch of the trigeminal nerve. The inferior alveolar nerves supply sensation to the lower teeth of the mandible.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.7
      Seconds
  • Question 98 - Which of the following structures, is the area in which the superior cerebral...

    Correct

    • Which of the following structures, is the area in which the superior cerebral veins drain into?

      Your Answer: Superior sagittal sinus

      Explanation:

      The superior cerebral veins are predominantly located on the superior aspect of the brain. They are 8 to 12 in number and they drain the lateral, medial and superior aspects of the cerebral hemispheres.

      These veins drain into the superior sagittal sinus, also known as the superior longitudinal sinus – which is located along the attached margin of the falx cerebri.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.2
      Seconds
  • Question 99 - Injury to this nerve will result to the loss of general sensory innervation...

    Correct

    • Injury to this nerve will result to the loss of general sensory innervation of the lacrimal gland:

      Your Answer: Ophthalmic nerve

      Explanation:

      The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. The lacrimal nerve, derived from the ophthalmic nerve, supplies the sensory component of the lacrimal gland. The greater petrosal nerve, derived from the facial nerve, supplies the parasympathetic autonomic component of the lacrimal gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      13.9
      Seconds
  • Question 100 - The anatomical course of the phrenic nerve passes over the following muscle in...

    Correct

    • The anatomical course of the phrenic nerve passes over the following muscle in the neck?

      Your Answer: Anterior scalene

      Explanation:

      The phrenic nerve originates in the neck between C3-C5, mostly C4 spinal root. It enters the thoracic cavity past the heart and lungs to the diaphragm. In the neck, this nerve begins at the lateral border of the anterior scalene muscle, its course then continues inferiorly on the anterior aspect of the anterior scalene muscle as it moves towards the diaphragm.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      3.3
      Seconds

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