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  • Question 1 - The net effect of parathyroid hormone on calcium and phosphate homeostasis is? ...

    Correct

    • The net effect of parathyroid hormone on calcium and phosphate homeostasis is?

      Your Answer: Increase in Ca, decrease in phosphate

      Explanation:

      Parathyroid hormone’s main target organs are the kidneys, bone, and intestine. In the kidney, it decreases reabsorption of phosphate and increases calcium reabsorption. It also promotes absorption of calcium from bone. PTH release results in a small drop in serum phosphate concentrations.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      8.7
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - Choose the most correct missing words to complete the statement: A portion of...

    Incorrect

    • Choose the most correct missing words to complete the statement: A portion of circulating growth hormone is bound to the ____ receptor and activates the ____ pathway that mediates its effect.

      Your Answer: Igf i, lipolysis

      Correct Answer: Growth hormone receptor (extracellular domain), jak 2stat

      Explanation:

      The growth hormone receptor is a transmembrane protein involved in the STATs, MAPK and PI3-kinase/Akt pathways. The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is activated by different ligands, such as growth hormone, interferon and interleukin. This pathway is involved in the expression of genes associated with oncogenesis, immunity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Errors in these pathways can produce leukaemia’s and other myeloproliferative disorders.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      10.1
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - Which of the following increase insulin secretion? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following increase insulin secretion?

      Your Answer: Sulfonylureas

      Explanation:

      Sulfonylureas are a type of antidiabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. Their main mechanism of action is producing a rise in plasma insulin levels, through stimulation of insulin secretion and a decrease in hepatic clearance of insulin. Sulfonylureas include gliclazide, glipizide, glibenclamide and glimepiride.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      11.4
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - Which of the following skin coloration abnormalities occurs due to adrenal insufficiency due...

    Correct

    • Which of the following skin coloration abnormalities occurs due to adrenal insufficiency due to primary adrenal disease?

      Your Answer: Hyperpigmentation

      Explanation:

      Addison’s disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism is an endocrine disorder. Hyperpigmentation is one of its most common signs; it occurs as a result of an increase in pro-opiomelanocortin to produce more ACTH in response to the decreased levels of cortisol. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a precursor of melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), which stimulates melanocytes, causing darkening of the skin.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      262.3
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - As assessed by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, the anterior pituitary gland contains how...

    Correct

    • As assessed by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, the anterior pituitary gland contains how many different types of cells?

      Your Answer: 5

      Explanation:

      The anterior pituitary, also known as adenohypophysis or pars anterior contains the following types of cells: – acidophil cells: somatotroph cells, which produce growth hormone; and lactotrophs, which produce prolactin- basophil cells: corticotropes, which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone; thyrotropes, which produce thyroid stimulating hormone; and – gonadotrophs, which produce luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      31.8
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - The action of progesterone on different organs/systems includes: ...

    Incorrect

    • The action of progesterone on different organs/systems includes:

      Your Answer: Uterus: pro-oestrogenic effect g. increase in uterine excitability, increase in oestrogen receptors

      Correct Answer: Breasts: stimulation of lobular and alveolar development

      Explanation:

      Progesterone is a sex hormone which affects mainly the reproductive system. In the breasts, it mediates the lobuloalveolar maturation to allow for milk production; this is done in conjunction with prolactin. It acts to maintain female reproductive and sex characteristics.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      16.1
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - Where is thyroglobulin produced? ...

    Incorrect

    • Where is thyroglobulin produced?

      Your Answer: Hypothalamus

      Correct Answer: Thyrocytes

      Explanation:

      Thyroglobulin, or Tg, is a protein that functions as the precursor to thyroid hormones. It is synthesized by thyrocytes and then secreted into the colloid. It also functions as a negative-feedback regulator of thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      9.8
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - The reflex responses activated by cold are controlled by which area? ...

    Incorrect

    • The reflex responses activated by cold are controlled by which area?

      Your Answer: Thalamus

      Correct Answer: Posterior hypothalamus

      Explanation:

      The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is responsible for thermoregulation and thermogenesis. Studies have shown that the neurons in the posterior hypothalamus which mediate the reflex of shivering are sensitive to temperature; damage to this nucleus produces hypothermia.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      12.1
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - Which of the following hormones cause negative feedback on the CRH/ACTH axis? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following hormones cause negative feedback on the CRH/ACTH axis?

      Your Answer: All of the options

      Correct Answer: Cortisol

      Explanation:

      The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, also known as HPA axis is a set of interactions that regulate the secretion of several hormones through negative feedback. Cortisol, for example, is produced by the adrenal cortex, binds to its receptors in the hypothalamus and adenohypophysis and inhibits secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The drop in CRH secretion leads to a decrease in ACTH secretion, which in turn causes less cortisol to be secreted.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      18.2
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - Which of the following is least recognised as a potential complication of acromegaly?...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following is least recognised as a potential complication of acromegaly?

      Your Answer: Cardiomyopathy

      Correct Answer: Mental retardation

      Explanation:

      Acromegaly is a condition that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed. It is typically due to the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone. In more than 95% of people the excess production is due to a benign tumour, known as a pituitary adenoma. The condition is not inherited.Complications:Severe headacheArthritis and carpal tunnel syndromeEnlarged heartLiver fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasiaHypertensionDiabetes mellitus (excess of GH leads to insulin resistance)Heart failureKidney failureColorectal cancerCompression of the optic chiasm leading to loss of vision in the outer visual fields (typically bitemporal hemianopia.)Increased palmar sweating and sebum production over the face (seborrhoea) are clinical indicators of active GH-producing pituitary tumours.hypertensiondiabetes (>10%)cardiomyopathycolorectal cancer

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      18.8
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - Calcium is transported over the brush border in the gut, via which transporter...

    Correct

    • Calcium is transported over the brush border in the gut, via which transporter / channel?

      Your Answer: TRPV 6

      Explanation:

      Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 6 or TRPV 6 is a calcium channel located in the cell membrane which is present in a variety of organs, including small intestine, oesophagus, stomach, colon, placenta, kidney, and uterus. In the intestine, it is located in the apical brush-border membrane of the enterocyte, regulating the entry of calcium into the cell.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      14.5
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - In the menstrual cycle, ovulation is triggered by: ...

    Incorrect

    • In the menstrual cycle, ovulation is triggered by:

      Your Answer: A pituitary LH surge due to due to an increase in GNRH pulses from the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus

      Correct Answer: A pituitary LH surge due to the positive feedback effect of circulating oestrogens

      Explanation:

      FSH and LH are secreted to start the development of a follicle at the start of each menstrual cycle. A surge in oestrogen causes a positive feedback in the LH cells of the pituitary; this causes ovulation.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      53
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - Which hormone secreting cell of the human anterior pituitary gland secretes growth hormone?...

    Correct

    • Which hormone secreting cell of the human anterior pituitary gland secretes growth hormone?

      Your Answer: Somatotroph

      Explanation:

      Somatotroph cells are responsible for the production of growth hormone. Somatotrophs occupy nearly 40% of the total surface area of the anterior pituitary, and they are acidophilic in nature.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      32.8
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - The febrile response to PGE2 will be impaired with the knockout of which...

    Incorrect

    • The febrile response to PGE2 will be impaired with the knockout of which one of the following prostaglandin receptors?

      Your Answer: Ep2

      Correct Answer: Ep3

      Explanation:

      Prostaglandin EP3 receptor is a receptor for prostaglandin E2. Fever occurs as a result of the action of prostaglandin E2 and requires EP3 receptors in the preoptic area. Therefore, if there is an absence of EP3 receptors, fever caused by prostaglandin E2 will not occur.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      8.1
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - Which of the following is responsible for converting inactive cortisone to active cortisol...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following is responsible for converting inactive cortisone to active cortisol in the adrenal gland?

      Your Answer: 11βHSD type 2

      Correct Answer: 11βHSD type 1

      Explanation:

      11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, also known as HSD-11β or 11β-HSD, is a group of enzymes which catalyse the interconversion of active cortisol and corticosterone with inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      14.3
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - Which of the following values of bone mineral density measured by DEXA would...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following values of bone mineral density measured by DEXA would signify osteopenia?

      Your Answer: Z score of -2.0

      Correct Answer: T score of -2.2

      Explanation:

      DEXA T Scores:Normal T-score ≥ −1.0Osteopenia −2.5 < T-score < −1.0Osteoporosis T-score ≤ −2.5Severe osteoporosis T-score ≤ −2.5 with fragility fracture

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      11
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - Select the correct statement about the microanatomy of the thyroid gland. ...

    Correct

    • Select the correct statement about the microanatomy of the thyroid gland.

      Your Answer: The capillaries adjacent to thyroid cells have a fenestrated endothelium.

      Explanation:

      Fenestrated capillaries have a very thin endothelium, which is perforated by numerous fenestrations or pores. Hormones are usually released into these capillaries, reaching their target cells through the circulatory system.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      36.6
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - Which one of the following is not part of the WHO diagnostic criteria...

    Correct

    • Which one of the following is not part of the WHO diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome?

      Your Answer: High LDL

      Explanation:

      The World Health Organization 1999 criteria require the presence of any one of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or insulin resistance, AND two of the following:Blood pressure: ≥ 140/90 mmHgDyslipidaemia: triglycerides (TG): ≥ 1.695 mmol/L and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ≤ 0.9 mmol/L (male), ≤ 1.0 mmol/L (female)Central obesity: waist: hip ratio > 0.90 (male); > 0.85 (female), or body mass index > 30 kg/m2Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin excretion ratio ≥ 20 µg/min or albumin: creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      11.5
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - Which of the following biochemical profiles is seen in a normal 65 year...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following biochemical profiles is seen in a normal 65 year old female? (in comparison to a normal 24 yr. old female)

      Your Answer: Decreased FSH, LH; decreased oestrogen, progesterone

      Correct Answer: Increased FSH, LH; decreased oestrogen, progesterone

      Explanation:

      During menopause, a woman’s number of ovarian follicles becomes depleted; as a result, oestrogen and progesterone levels drop, and LH and FSH levels increase. One of the criteria to diagnose menopause is the absence of menstrual period for a year, along with a serum FSH level increased to 30 mIU/ml or higher. LH also rises with the onset of menopause.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      29.3
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - Which of the following forms one of the characteristic and functional cells making...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following forms one of the characteristic and functional cells making up the anterior pituitary gland?

      Your Answer: None of the options

      Correct Answer: Corticotrope

      Explanation:

      The anterior pituitary, also known as adenohypophysis or pars anterior contains the following types of cells: – acidophil cells: somatotroph cells, which produce growth hormone; and lactotrophs, which produce prolactin- basophil cells: corticotropes, which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone; thyrotropes, which produce thyroid stimulating hormone; and – gonadotrophs, which produce luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      13.7
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - Which glucose transporter is responsible for the uptake of glucose in ß cells?...

    Correct

    • Which glucose transporter is responsible for the uptake of glucose in ß cells?

      Your Answer: GLUT 2

      Explanation:

      Glucose transporter 2, also known as GLUT2 is a transmembrane carrier protein which is not insulin dependent. It is found in the liver and the pancreatic islet ß cells, where it functions as the primary glucose transporter that allows the transfer of glucose between these organs and blood.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      8.6
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Which cell secretes parathyroid hormone? ...

    Correct

    • Which cell secretes parathyroid hormone?

      Your Answer: Chief cells

      Explanation:

      Parathyroid chief cells, also known as parathyroid principal cells or parathyroid cells, are the most prevalent type of cell in the parathyroid gland and the only ones present at birth. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      6.8
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - What causes increased insulin sensitivity? ...

    Incorrect

    • What causes increased insulin sensitivity?

      Your Answer: Catecholamine release

      Correct Answer: Exercise

      Explanation:

      Physical activity, through its effect on insulin sensitivity, is one of the main modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that by each weekly 500 kcal increment in exercise related energy consumption, the lifetime risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes is reduced by 9%. Up to two hours after exercise, glucose uptake is elevated due to insulin independent mechanisms; however, insulin sensitivity remains increased for at least 16 hours after exercising.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      24.3
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - The onset of puberty is triggered by ...

    Correct

    • The onset of puberty is triggered by

      Your Answer: Increase in pulsatile GNRH secretion from hypothalamus

      Explanation:

      The onset of puberty is associated with high GNRH pulsing, which precedes the rise in sex hormones. Brain tumours which increase GNRH output may also lead to premature puberty. The cause of the GNRH rise is unknown.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      19
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - What is the effect of oxytocin on the breast? ...

    Incorrect

    • What is the effect of oxytocin on the breast?

      Your Answer: Trophic effect, breast growth

      Correct Answer: Milk ejection

      Explanation:

      Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide, produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. It causes the milk ejection or let-down reflex, causing the milk to be transported to the subareolar sinuses, allowing it to be released through the nipple. This response is initiated by the act of suckling by the baby, but it can be conditioned to be triggered by different stimuli.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      12.7
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - Pendrin is a Cl-/I- exchanger whose function is: ...

    Incorrect

    • Pendrin is a Cl-/I- exchanger whose function is:

      Your Answer: None of the above

      Correct Answer: Transfer of iodide across the thyrocyte apical membrane into the colloid

      Explanation:

      Pendrin is an anion transporter present in the inner ear, thyroid and kidney. It regulates the entrance of iodide from the thyroid cell to the colloid space. It has been proposed that its role could be the maintenance of the ionic composition of the endolymph.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      40.6
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - What is the primary cause of ketoacidosis in Type 1 diabetes? ...

    Incorrect

    • What is the primary cause of ketoacidosis in Type 1 diabetes?

      Your Answer: Gluconeogenesis

      Correct Answer: Lipolysis

      Explanation:

      in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial precursor to the β-oxidation of fatty acids) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a by-product of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism or lipolysis) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      26.8
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - Compact/cortical bone makes up ...

    Correct

    • Compact/cortical bone makes up

      Your Answer: The outer layer of most bones and accounts for 80% of bone in the body

      Explanation:

      Cortical, lamellar, or compact bone, is more dense than spongy bone and it forms the rigid, outer layer of bones, also called cortex. It consists of packed osteons, with a central osteonic canal surrounded by concentric rings. Spaces called lacunae are filled with osteocytes, and channels called canaliculi go from the lacunae to the osteonic canal. The strength of cortical bone allows it to support the body and protect organs. It also stores different elements, such as calcium.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      31.4
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - What is the most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism? ...

    Incorrect

    • What is the most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism?

      Your Answer: Adrenocortical adenoma

      Correct Answer: Bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia

      Explanation:

      Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn’s syndrome, is excess production of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in low renin levels. Primary hyperaldosteronism has a number of causes. About 66% of cases are due to enlargement of both adrenal glands and 33% of cases are due to an adrenal adenoma that produces aldosterone. Other uncommon causes include adrenal cancer and an inherited disorder called familial hyperaldosteronism

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      12
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - What is the most important source of heat production in the body? ...

    Correct

    • What is the most important source of heat production in the body?

      Your Answer: Skeletal muscle contraction

      Explanation:

      Thermogenesis is the process by which organisms produce heat. Through skeletal muscle contraction, or shivering, ATP is converted into kinetic energy, some of which converts into heat. These muscle contractions produce about 70% of total body heat.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrinology
      • Medicine
      4.1
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Endocrinology (13/30) 43%
Medicine (13/30) 43%
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