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  • Question 1 - Which of the following is likely to result in hematocolpos in a 12-year...

    Correct

    • Which of the following is likely to result in hematocolpos in a 12-year old girl?

      Your Answer: Imperforate hymen

      Explanation:

      Hematocolpos means accumulation of blood in vagina and hematometra is accumulation of blood in the uterus. These are most likely seen with an imperforate hymen; which is seen I 1 in 2000 females. If spontaneous resolution does not occur, treatment involves making a hole in the hymen to allow discharge of menstrual blood.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Pathology
      • Women's Health
      225.4
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - A 12-year old girl was brought to the hospital with recurrent headaches for...

    Incorrect

    • A 12-year old girl was brought to the hospital with recurrent headaches for 6 months. Her physical examination revealed no abnormality. A CT scan of the head revealed a suprasellar mass with calcifications, eroding the surrounding sella turcica. The lesion is likely to represent:

      Your Answer: Astrocytoma

      Correct Answer: Craniopharyngioma

      Explanation:

      Craniopharyngiomas (also known as Rathke pouch tumours, adamantinomas or hypophyseal duct tumours) affect children mainly between the age of 5 and 10 years. It constitutes 9% of brain tumours affecting the paediatric population. These are slow-growing tumours which can also be cystic, and arise from the pituitary stalk, specifically the nests of epithelium derived from Rathke’s pouch. Histologically, this tumour shows nests of squamous epithelium which is lined on the outside by radially arranged cells. Calcium deposition is often seen with a papillary type of architecture.

      ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and mostly microadenomas. Paediatric astrocytoma’s usually occur in the posterior fossa. Although null cell adenomas can cause mass effect and give rise to the described symptoms, they are not suprasellar. Prolactinomas can also show symptoms of headache and disturbances in the visual field, however they are known to be small and slow-growing.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine
      • Pathology
      45.8
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - The absence of which of the following components characterizes the grey platelet syndrome...

    Incorrect

    • The absence of which of the following components characterizes the grey platelet syndrome (GPS)?

      Your Answer: Golgi bodies

      Correct Answer: Alpha granules

      Explanation:

      Grey platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited bleeding disorder associated with an almost total absence of α-granules and their contents. The syndrome is characterised by thrombocytopenia, enlarged platelets that have a grey appearance, myelofibrosis, and splenomegaly. Alpha granules store proteins and growth factors that promote platelet adhesiveness and wound healing. Patients with GPS develop symptoms and signs such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, and nose bleeds.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Haematology
      • Pathology
      27
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - What is the most likely cause of bitemporal hemianopia? ...

    Correct

    • What is the most likely cause of bitemporal hemianopia?

      Your Answer: Prolactinoma

      Explanation:

      Prolactinoma is the mot common pituitary adenoma; leading to hyperprolactinaemia. By virtue of their size, macroprolactinomas press on the adjacent structures leading to headaches and loss of vision due to the pressure effect on optic chiasm. Women notice a change in their menstrual cycle due to raised prolactin levels. In comparison, the problem goes unnoticed in men in the initial stages. Craniopharyngioma is a less common space-occupying lesions affecting children and young adults.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Endocrine
      • Pathology
      15.9
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - Injury to this nerve will result to the loss of general sensory innervation...

    Correct

    • Injury to this nerve will result to the loss of general sensory innervation of the lacrimal gland:

      Your Answer: Ophthalmic nerve

      Explanation:

      The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. The lacrimal nerve, derived from the ophthalmic nerve, supplies the sensory component of the lacrimal gland. The greater petrosal nerve, derived from the facial nerve, supplies the parasympathetic autonomic component of the lacrimal gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      113.3
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - Regarding the coagulation cascade, Factor VII: ...

    Incorrect

    • Regarding the coagulation cascade, Factor VII:

      Your Answer: Is activated by von Willebrand factor

      Correct Answer: Is a serine protease

      Explanation:

      Factor VII (FVII) is a zymogen for a vitamin K-dependent serine protease essential for the initiation of blood coagulation. It is synthesized primarily in the liver and circulates in plasma. Within the liver, hepatocytes are involved in the synthesis of most blood coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, as well as protein C and S, and antithrombin, whereas liver sinusoidal endothelial cells produce factor VIII and von Willebrand factor.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • General
      • Physiology
      24.5
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - A young male was diagnosed with hepatitis A, which clinically resolved in 2...

    Correct

    • A young male was diagnosed with hepatitis A, which clinically resolved in 2 weeks. What will his liver biopsy done after 6 months show?

      Your Answer: Normal architecture

      Explanation:

      Hepatitis A is the most common acute viral hepatitis, more common in children and young adults. It is caused by Hepatitis A virus, which is a single-stranded RNA picornavirus. The primary route of spread of Hepatitis A is the faecal-oral route. Consumption of contaminated raw shellfish is also a likely causative factor. The shedding of the virus in faecal matter occurs before the onset of symptoms and continues a few days after. Hepatitis A does not lead to chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, and there is no known chronic carrier state. Hence, a biopsy performed after recovery will show normal hepatocellular architecture.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Gastrointestinal; Hepatobiliary
      • Pathology
      32.5
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - The Henderson–Hasselbalch equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity. According to this equation,...

    Correct

    • The Henderson–Hasselbalch equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity. According to this equation, the buffering capacity of the system is at maximum when the number of free anions compared with undissociated acid is:

      Your Answer: Equal

      Explanation:

      In 1908, Lawrence Joseph Henderson wrote an equation describing the use of carbonic acid as a buffer solution. Later, Karl Albert Hasselbalch re-expressed that formula in logarithmic terms, resulting in the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation. The equation is also useful for estimating the pH of a buffer solution and finding the equilibrium pH in acid–base reactions. Two equivalent forms of the equation are: pH = pKa + log10 [A–]/[HA] or pH = pKa + log10 [base]/[acid]. Here, pKa is − log10(Ka) where Ka is the acid dissociation constant, that is: pKa = –log10(Ka) = –log10 ([H3 O+][A–]/[HA]) for the reaction: HA + H2 O ≈ A– + H3 O+ In these equations, A– denotes the ionic form of the relevant acid. Bracketed quantities such as [base] and [acid] denote the molar concentration of the quantity enclosed. Maximum buffering capacity is found when pH = pKa or when the number of free anions to undissociated acid is equal and buffer range is considered to be at a pH = pKa ± 1.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Fluids & Electrolytes
      • Physiology
      73.2
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A child presents with hypertension. Serum potassium analysis shows hypokalaemia. What is the...

    Correct

    • A child presents with hypertension. Serum potassium analysis shows hypokalaemia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Liddle syndrome

      Explanation:

      Liddle’s syndrome,  is an autosomal dominant disorder, that is characterized by early, and frequently severe, high blood pressure associated with low plasma renin activity, metabolic alkalosis, low blood potassium, and normal to low levels of aldosterone. Liddle syndrome involves abnormal kidney function, with excess reabsorption of sodium and loss of potassium from the renal tubule. Bartter Syndrome also presents with hypokalaemia, however blood pressure of these patients is usually low or normal.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Fluids & Electrolytes
      • Pathology
      53.5
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - Painful erections along with deviation of the penis to one side when erect...

    Incorrect

    • Painful erections along with deviation of the penis to one side when erect are seen in which of the following conditions?

      Your Answer: Balanitis

      Correct Answer: Peyronie’s disease

      Explanation:

      Peyronie’s disease leads to development of fibrous plaques in the penile soft tissue and occurs in 1% of men, most commonly affecting white males above 40 years age. It is a connective tissue disorder named after a French surgeon, François de la Peyronie who first described it. Symptoms include pain, hard lesions on the penis, abnormal curvature of erect penis, narrowing/shortening, painful sexual intercourse and in later stages, erectile dysfunction. 30% cases report fibrosis in other elastic tissues such as Dupuytren’s contractures of the hand. There is likely a genetic predisposition as increased incidence is noted among the male relatives of an affected individual.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Pathology
      • Urology
      50
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Pathology (4/7) 57%
Women's Health (1/1) 100%
Endocrine (1/2) 50%
Haematology (0/1) 0%
Anatomy (1/1) 100%
Head & Neck (1/1) 100%
General (0/1) 0%
Physiology (1/2) 50%
Gastrointestinal; Hepatobiliary (1/1) 100%
Fluids & Electrolytes (2/2) 100%
Urology (0/1) 0%
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