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  • Question 1 - The thyrocervical trunk branches into which artery that passes upward and in front...

    Correct

    • The thyrocervical trunk branches into which artery that passes upward and in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle:

      Your Answer: Inferior thyroid

      Explanation:

      The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      34.7
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - A 46-year old female patient experienced a stroke that affected her glossopharyngeal nerve....

    Incorrect

    • A 46-year old female patient experienced a stroke that affected her glossopharyngeal nerve. Damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve would most likely:

      Your Answer: Result in loss of motor innervation to the risorius muscle

      Correct Answer: Result in general sensory deficit to the pharynx

      Explanation:

      The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) has many functions which include:

      – Contributes to the pharyngeal plexus

      – Receiving general somatic sensory fibres from the tonsils, pharynx, the middle ear and the posterior third of the tongue.

      – supplies motor fibres to only one muscle; the stylopharyngeus muscle.

      – provides parasympathetic fibres to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion.

      – Receives visceral sensory fibres from the carotid bodies & carotid sinus.

      – Receives special visceral sensory fibres from the posterior third of the tongue.

      The above functions will directly be affected by the damage of the glossopharyngeal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      180.3
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - In a neurological exam on a robbery with violence victim, it was discovered...

    Correct

    • In a neurological exam on a robbery with violence victim, it was discovered that the victim had lost sense of touch to the skin over her cheek and chin (maxilla and mandible region). Where are the cell bodies of the nerve that is responsible for touch sensations of this region located?

      Your Answer: Cranial nerve V ganglion

      Explanation:

      The skin over the cheek and the maxilla are innervated by the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The trigeminal nerve has three major branches and it is the largest cranial nerve. The three branches of the trigeminal nerve are; the ophthalmic nerve, the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve. The trigeminal nerves ganglion is a sensory nerve ganglion know as the trigeminal ganglion (also referred to as the Gasser’s ganglion or the semilunar ganglion). It is contained in the dura matter in a cavity known as the Meckel’s cave, which covers the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      31
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - The occipital artery is accompanied by which nerve as it arises from the...

    Correct

    • The occipital artery is accompanied by which nerve as it arises from the external carotid artery?

      Your Answer: Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

      Explanation:

      Three main types of variations in the relations of the occipital artery and the hypoglossal nerve are found according to the level at which the nerve crosses the external carotid artery and the point of origin of the occipital artery. In Type I, the hypoglossal nerve crosses the external carotid artery inferior to the origin of the occipital artery; in Type II, the nerve crosses the external carotid artery at the level of origin of the occipital artery; and in Type III, it crosses superior to that level. In Type III the occipital artery makes a loop around the hypoglossal nerve and is in a position to pull and exert pressure on the nerve. This possibility should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis of peripheral paresis or paralysis of the tongue and during surgery in this area.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      20.1
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - Into which vein does the left and right inferior thyroid veins drain? ...

    Incorrect

    • Into which vein does the left and right inferior thyroid veins drain?

      Your Answer: External jugular vein

      Correct Answer: Brachiocephalic vein

      Explanation:

      The brachiocephalic vein is formed by the confluence of the subclavian and internal jugular veins. In addition it receives drainage from: the left and right internal thoracic veins (also called internal mammary veins), left and right inferior thyroid veins and the left superior intercostal vein.
      The superior thyroid veins and middle thyroid veins drain into the internal jugular vein. The right and left inferior thyroid veins to drain into their respective brachiocephalic veins (right and left).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      20
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - A CT scan of 65 year old male patient at an outpatient clinic...

    Correct

    • A CT scan of 65 year old male patient at an outpatient clinic suggested a bone tumour at the stylomastoid foramen. Which of the following cranial nerves is likely to be affected with this tumour?

      Your Answer: VII

      Explanation:

      Cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve, is found in the internal acoustic canal and runs through this canal into the facial canal before exiting through the stylomastoid foramen. In the case of a bone tumour at the stylomastoid process, the facial nerve is the nerve that will most likely be affected.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      27.7
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - The posterior boundary of the carotid triangle is bounded by which of the...

    Correct

    • The posterior boundary of the carotid triangle is bounded by which of the following muscles?

      Your Answer: Sternocleidomastoid

      Explanation:

      The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck. It is bounded superiorly by the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, antero-inferiorly by the superior belly of omohyoid and posteriorly by the sternocleidomastoid. The floor is formed by the thyrohyoid, hyoglossus, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors and the roof is formed by the skin, superficial fascia, platysma and deep fascia.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - Which of the following muscles winds around the pterygoid hamulus? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following muscles winds around the pterygoid hamulus?

      Your Answer: Hyoglossus

      Correct Answer: Tensor veli palatini

      Explanation:

      The tensor veli palatini tenses the soft palate and by doing so, assists the levator veli palatini in elevating the palate to occlude and prevent entry of food into the nasopharynx during swallowing. It arises by a flat lamella from the scaphoid fossa at the base of the medial pterygoid plate, from the spina angularis of the sphenoid and from the lateral wall of the cartilage of the auditory tube. Descending vertically between the medial pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid muscle, it ends in a tendon which winds around the pterygoid hamulus, being retained in this situation by some of the fibres of origin of the medial pterygoid muscle. Between the tendon and the hamulus is a small bursa. The tendon then passes medialward and is inserted onto the palatine aponeurosis and the surface behind the transverse ridge on the horizontal part of the palatine bone.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9.1
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A 35 year-old woman is undergoing thyroidectomy. The external laryngeal nerve may be...

    Correct

    • A 35 year-old woman is undergoing thyroidectomy. The external laryngeal nerve may be injured whilst ligating this artery during the procedure due to its close relationship?

      Your Answer: Superior thyroid artery

      Explanation:

      The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland. This artery must be ligated at the thyroid when conducting a thyroidectomy. If the artery is severed, but not ligated, it will bleed profusely. In order to gain control of the bleeding, the surgeon may need to extend the original incision laterally to ligate the artery at its origin at the external carotid artery. The external laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve courses in close proximity to the superior thyroid artery, making it at risk for injury during surgery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      39.9
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - The pterygoid plexus receives tributaries from which of the following veins? ...

    Correct

    • The pterygoid plexus receives tributaries from which of the following veins?

      Your Answer: Maxillary vein

      Explanation:

      The pterygoid plexus of veins is the main venous component associated with the infratemporal fossa. It receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the internal maxillary artery. This plexus communicates freely with the anterior facial vein; it also communicates with the cavernous sinus, by branches through the foramen of Vesalius, foramen ovale and foramen lacerum. The (internal) maxillary vein is a short trunk which accompanies the first part of the (internal) maxillary artery. It is formed by a confluence of the veins of the pterygoid plexus and passes backward between the sphenomandibular ligament and the neck of the mandible and unites with the temporal vein to form the posterior facial vein. It carries blood away from the infratemporal fossa.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      20.6
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - A 42 - year old male patient with an acute onset headache was...

    Correct

    • A 42 - year old male patient with an acute onset headache was brought in to the emergency department with suspicion of a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The SHO on call decided to have a diagnostic lumbar puncture after computed topography scan failed to support the suspicion. To perform a successful lumbar puncture without causing injury to the spine, which anatomical landmark should guide the SHO to locate the fourth vertebra for insertion of the spinal needle?

      Your Answer: Iliac crest

      Explanation:

      The safest spinal level for conducting a lumbar puncture, is at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The anatomical landmark used to locate the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4), is the iliac crest. The needle can safely be inserted either above or below L4. The conus medullaris is at the level of the border of L1 and L2 so L4 is safely distant from it.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      42
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - What is the innervation of the laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal...

    Correct

    • What is the innervation of the laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal cord?

      Your Answer: Recurrent laryngeal nerve

      Explanation:

      Motor innervation to all other muscles of the larynx and sensory innervation to the subglottis is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      7.2
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - The basilar artery arises from the confluence of which two arteries? ...

    Incorrect

    • The basilar artery arises from the confluence of which two arteries?

      Your Answer: Internal carotid

      Correct Answer: Vertebral

      Explanation:

      The basilar artery is part of the vertebrobasilar system. It is formed by the confluence of the two vertebral arteries which arise from the subclavian arteries. These two vertebral arteries merge at the level of cranial nerve VI at the junction between the pons and the medulla oblangata to form what is know as the basilar artery. This vertebrobasilar system supplies the upper spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and posterior part of brain.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      20.2
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - The muscle that stabilizes the stapes is innervated by which of the following...

    Incorrect

    • The muscle that stabilizes the stapes is innervated by which of the following nerves?

      Your Answer: Cranial nerve VIII

      Correct Answer: Facial nerve

      Explanation:

      The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimetre in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes and is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      11.7
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - To reach the oral vestibule, the parotid duct must pierce this muscle: ...

    Correct

    • To reach the oral vestibule, the parotid duct must pierce this muscle:

      Your Answer: Buccinator muscle

      Explanation:

      The parotid duct or Stensen duct is a duct and the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland, the parotid gland into the mouth. The parotid duct is formed when several interlobular ducts—the largest ducts inside the parotid gland join. It emerges from the gland and runs forward along the lateral side of the masseter muscle. In this course, the duct is surrounded by the buccal fat pad. It takes a steep turn at the border of the masseter and passes through the buccinator muscle, opening into the vestibule of the mouth, between the cheek and the gums, at the parotid papilla, which lies across the second superior molar tooth.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      16.3
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - At which cervical level does the common carotid artery bifurcate into the internal...

    Correct

    • At which cervical level does the common carotid artery bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries?

      Your Answer: C4

      Explanation:

      The common carotid arteries are present on the left and right sides of the body. These arteries originate from different sources, but follow symmetrical courses. The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk; the left from the aortic arch in the thorax. These split into the external and internal carotid arteries at the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, at around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      6.5
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - What intrinsic muscle of the larynx is responsible for the tensing of the...

    Correct

    • What intrinsic muscle of the larynx is responsible for the tensing of the vocal cords?

      Your Answer: Cricothyroid muscle

      Explanation:

      The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation. It attaches to the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid and the inferior cornu and lower lamina of the thyroid cartilage. Its action tilts the thyroid forward to help tense the vocal cords.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      18.8
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - Which of the following muscle divide the posterior triangle of the neck into...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following muscle divide the posterior triangle of the neck into the occipital and the subclavian triangle?

      Your Answer: Posterior belly of the digastric

      Correct Answer: Inferior belly of the omohyoid

      Explanation:

      The posterior triangle (or lateral cervical region) is a region of the neck bounded in front by the sternocleidomastoid; behind, by the anterior margin of the trapezius; inferiorly by the middle third of the clavicle and superiorly by the occipital bone. The posterior triangle is crossed, about 2.5 cm above the clavicle, by the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle, which divides the space into two triangles: an upper or occipital triangle and a lower or subclavian triangle (or supraclavicular triangle).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9.7
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - A 45 year-old female presents with a drooping eyelid. During examination, the same...

    Correct

    • A 45 year-old female presents with a drooping eyelid. During examination, the same pupil of the patient is found to be dilated. Which nerve could be involve in this case?

      Your Answer: Oculomotor nerve

      Explanation:

      The oculomotor nerve controls most of the eye muscles. It also controls the constriction of the pupils and thickening of the lens of the eye. This can be tested in two main ways. By moving a finger toward a person’s face to induce accommodation, their pupils should constrict or shining a light into one eye should result in equal constriction of the other eye. The neurons in the optic nerve decussate in the optic chiasm with some crossing to the contralateral optic nerve tract. This is the basis of the swinging-flashlight test. Loss of accommodation and continued pupillary dilation can indicate the presence of a lesion of the oculomotor nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      20.2
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - Which of the following structures is not easily palpable? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following structures is not easily palpable?

      Your Answer: Styloid process of the temporal bone

      Explanation:

      The styloid process is a thin, pointed process that projects antero-inferiorly from the base of the petrous temporal bone. It can vary in length from a short, stubby process to a slender, four to five centimetre rod. It forms from the cranial elements of the second pharyngeal arch. The tympanic plate of the temporal bone ensheathes the base of this process. The pointed, projecting portion of the process provides attachment to the stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments, and to three muscles – the styloglossus, stylohyoid, and stylopharyngeus. As the styloid process is covered by the various muscles, it is not easily palpable in live subjects.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      4.8
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - The vagus nerve passes through which of the following foramen? ...

    Incorrect

    • The vagus nerve passes through which of the following foramen?

      Your Answer: Foramen magnum

      Correct Answer: Jugular foramen

      Explanation:

      The jugular foramen is a large foramen in the base of the skull. It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and behind by the occipital bone. Cranial nerves IX, X, and XI and the internal jugular vein pass through the jugular foramen.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      8.7
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Injury to this nerve may result in loss of sensation of the mandibular...

    Incorrect

    • Injury to this nerve may result in loss of sensation of the mandibular teeth and bone:

      Your Answer: Buccal nerve

      Correct Answer: Inferior alveolar nerve

      Explanation:

      The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch of the trigeminal nerve. The inferior alveolar nerves supply sensation to the lower teeth of the mandible.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      18.6
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - Which of the following muscles attaches to the pterygomandibular raphe? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following muscles attaches to the pterygomandibular raphe?

      Your Answer: Tensor veli palatini muscle

      Correct Answer: Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

      Explanation:

      The pterygomandibular raphé (pterygomandibular ligament) provides attachment on its posterior border to the superior pharyngeal constrictor and on its anterior border to the buccinator muscle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      17.6
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - During a car accident, the side mirror shattered and a broken piece of...

    Incorrect

    • During a car accident, the side mirror shattered and a broken piece of glass severed the posterolateral aspect of the driver's neck. A physical examination reveals that the driver is unable to elevate the tip of his shoulder on the side that was injured. Which nerve was injured?

      Your Answer: Thoracodorsal

      Correct Answer: Accessory

      Explanation:

      The tip of the shoulder is formed by the acromion of the scapula. This part is moved by the trapezius muscle which is innervated by the accessory nerve. Damage to this nerve therefore will prevent the patient from lifting the tip of the shoulder.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      88.4
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - Which of the following foramen provides passage of the facial nerve? ...

    Correct

    • Which of the following foramen provides passage of the facial nerve?

      Your Answer: Internal acoustic meatus

      Explanation:

      The internal auditory meatus provides a passage through which the vestibulocochlear nerve, the facial nerve, and the labyrinthine artery (an internal auditory branch of the basilar artery) can pass from inside the skull to structures of the inner ear and face.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      9.6
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - From which source does the lingual artery originate? ...

    Correct

    • From which source does the lingual artery originate?

      Your Answer: External carotid

      Explanation:

      The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located easily on the lower surface of the tongue. The terminal branch of the lingual artery is the deep lingual artery. On its course the lingual artery gives off side branches: dorsal lingual branches that supply the dorsum of the tongue till the epiglottis; sublingual artery that supplies the sublingual gland.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      13.7
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - Cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve, innervates which one of the following muscles...

    Correct

    • Cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve, innervates which one of the following muscles in the list?

      Your Answer: Hyoglossus

      Explanation:

      The cranial nerve XII, hypoglossal nerve, innervates all the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus. The muscles of the tongue innervated by this nerve include the extrinsic muscles; hyoglossus, styloglossus, genioglossus and the intrinsic muscles; superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, vertical and transverse muscles. The salpingopharyngeus, palatoglossus and the palatopharyngeus muscles are innervated by the vagus nerve. The stylopharyngeus muscle is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX). The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve. Finally, the geniohyoid muscle is innervated by the olfactory nerve (CN I) via the hypoglossal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      18.8
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - A 35 year old male patient sustained a traumatic head injury. The patient...

    Correct

    • A 35 year old male patient sustained a traumatic head injury. The patient had loss of consciousness, woke up momentarily when he was in the emergency room but became drowsy and comatose a few hours after. CT scan of the brain showed accumulation of blood between the dura and the cranial bone on the left side of his head. What type of haemorrhage did the patient have?

      Your Answer: Epidural

      Explanation:

      Epidural hematoma, also known as epidural bleeding, is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a build-up of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull. The spinal cord is also covered by a layer of dura mater, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the spinal column. Often due to trauma, the condition is potentially deadly because the build-up of blood may increase pressure in the intracranial space, compressing delicate brain tissue, and causing brain shift. The condition is present in one to three percent of head injuries. Around 15–20% of epidural hematomas are fatal.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      47.7
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - The otic ganglion receives its preganglionic sympathetic fibres from which of the following...

    Incorrect

    • The otic ganglion receives its preganglionic sympathetic fibres from which of the following nerves?

      Your Answer: Optic nerve

      Correct Answer: Glossopharyngeal nerve

      Explanation:

      The otic ganglion is a small (2–3 mm), oval shaped, flattened parasympathetic ganglion of a reddish-grey colour, located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa and on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve. The preganglionic parasympathetic fibres originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve. They leave the glossopharyngeal nerve by its tympanic branch and then pass via the tympanic plexus and the lesser petrosal nerve to the otic ganglion. Here, the fibres synapse, and the postganglionic fibres pass by communicating branches to the auriculotemporal nerve, which conveys them to the parotid gland. They produce vasodilator and secretomotor effects.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      16.3
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - The pterion is clinically significant as it marks an area of weakness on...

    Correct

    • The pterion is clinically significant as it marks an area of weakness on the skull. What structure lies beneath it?

      Your Answer: Anterior branches of the middle meningeal artery

      Explanation:

      The pterion is the area where four bones, the parietal, frontal, greater wing of sphenoid and the squamous part of the temporal bone meet. It overlies the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery on the internal aspect of the skull. The pterion is the weakest part of the skull. Slight trauma to this region can cause extradural hematoma.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      18.1
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Anatomy (19/30) 63%
Head & Neck (19/30) 63%
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