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• #### Question 1 - In a study, 50 out of 100 smokers developed lung cancers and 50...

Correct

• In a study, 50 out of 100 smokers developed lung cancers and 50 out of 200 non-smokers developed lung cancers. Which of the following is accurate?

Explanation:

Relative risk = (Incidence in exposed group)/incidence in unexposed group). So in this case RR = (50/100)/(50/200) = 2.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
252.7
Seconds
• #### Question 2 - Which one of the following statements regarding the normal distribution is correct? ...

Correct

• Which one of the following statements regarding the normal distribution is correct?

Explanation:

Normal distribution, also known as the Gaussian distribution, is a probability distribution that is symmetric about the mean. The normal distribution has the following properties:- It is symmetric around the mode, the median and the mean of the distribution.- It is unimodal- The area under the curve and over the x-axis is unity (i.e. equal to one).- Its density has two inflection points.- Its density is log-concave.The standard deviation (SD) is a measure of how much dispersion exists from the mean. SD = square root (variance)

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
53.4
Seconds
• #### Question 3 - A study is carried out to assess the efficacy of a new anti-epileptic...

Correct

• A study is carried out to assess the efficacy of a new anti-epileptic drug for children with absence seizures. The total number of the children selected for the study was 400, from which 150 children were assigned to take the new drug and 250 children were assigned in the control group. After a period of four months, only 15 children taking the new drug had a seizure compared to 100 children from the control group who had seizure. What is the correct value regarding the relative risk reduction?

Explanation:

Relative risk reduction (RRR) tells you by how much the treatment reduced the risk of bad outcomes relative to the control group who did not have the treatment. In the previous example, the relative risk reduction of fever and rash in the group of the children on the intervention was 40 per cent (1 – 0.6 = 0.4 or 40 per cent). RRR = (EER -CER) / CER = (0.1 – 0.4) / 0.4 = -0.75 or 75% reduction.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
235
Seconds
• #### Question 4 - Which one of the following statements best describes a type II statistical error?...

Correct

• Which one of the following statements best describes a type II statistical error?

Explanation:

In statistical hypothesis testing there are 2 types of errors:- type I: the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true – i.e. Showing a difference between two groups when it doesn’t exist, a false positive. – type II: the null hypothesis is accepted when it is false – i.e. Failing to spot a difference when one really exists, a false negative.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
86.9
Seconds
• #### Question 5 - Choose the standard method for comparing distributions in data sets (such as between...

Incorrect

• Choose the standard method for comparing distributions in data sets (such as between the expected frequency of an event and the observed frequency of an event) from the list of options.

Correct Answer: Chi squared (X²) test

Explanation:

The Chi-squared test evaluates if two variables are related. The other statistical tests mentioned do not perform this function.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
79.9
Seconds
• #### Question 6 - A clinical trial is conducted to study the benefits of a new oral...

Incorrect

• A clinical trial is conducted to study the benefits of a new oral medication to improve the symptoms of patients with asthma. In the trial 400 patients with asthma, half were given the new medication and half a placebo. Three months later they are asked to rate their symptoms using the following scale: much improved, slight improvement, no change, slight worsening, significantly worse. What is the most appropriate statistical test to see whether the new medication is beneficial?

Explanation:

The type of significance test used depends on whether the data is parametric (can be measured, usually normally distributed) or non-parametric.Parametric tests:Student’s t-test – paired or unpaired*Pearson’s product-moment coefficient – correlationNon-parametric tests:Mann-Whitney U test – unpaired dataWilcoxon signed-rank test – compares two sets of observations on a single samplechi-squared test – used to compare proportions or percentagesSpearman, Kendall rank – correlation.The outcome measured is not normally distributed, i.e. it is non-parametric. This excludes the Student’s t-tests. We are not comparing percentages/proportions so the chi-squared test is excluded. The Mann–Whitney U test is a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that it is equally likely that a randomly selected value from one sample will be less than or greater than a randomly selected value from a second sample.This test can be used to investigate whether two independent samples were selected from populations having the same distribution.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
57.5
Seconds
• #### Question 7 - There is a measure of dispersion of a set of data from its...

Correct

• There is a measure of dispersion of a set of data from its mean. Which of following is the best term which can describe the above?

Explanation:

Standard deviation is defined as the measure of dispersion of a set of data from its mean. It measures the absolute variability of a distribution; the higher the dispersion or variability, the greater is the standard deviation and greater will be the magnitude of the deviation of the value from their mean.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
16.5
Seconds
• #### Question 8 - A study is carried out to assess the efficacy of a rapid urine...

Incorrect

• A study is carried out to assess the efficacy of a rapid urine screening test developed to detect Chlamydia. The total number of people involved in the study were 200. The study compared the new test to the already existing NAAT techniques. The new test was positive in 20 patients that were Chlamydia positive and in 3 patients that were Chlamydia negative. For 5 patients that were Chlamydia positive and 172 patients that were Chlamydia negative the test turned out to be negative. Choose the correct value regarding the negative predictive value of the new test:

Explanation:

The definition of negative predictive value is the probability that the individuals with truly negative screening test don’t have Chlamydia. The equation is the following: Negative predictive value = Truly negative/(truly negative + false negative) = 172 / (172 + 5) = 172 / 177

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
176.9
Seconds
• #### Question 9 - A study is developed to look at the potential of hip protectors to...

Correct

• A study is developed to look at the potential of hip protectors to reduce femoral neck fractures in elderly nursing home patients. The study included 800 patients randomly selected with an average age of 82 years of age. The data was collected over a two year period and the patients were randomly put in the standard care group or the hip protector group. From the 400 patients assigned to the hip protector group, 10 had a femoral neck fracture over the two year period. From the 400 patients assigned to the standard care group, 20 had a femoral neck fracture over the two year period. What is the correct value regarding the absolute risk reduction?

Explanation:

Absolute risk reduction (ARR) – also called risk difference (RD) – is the most useful way of presenting research results to help your decision-making. In this example, the ARR is 8 per cent (20 per cent – 12 per cent = 8 per cent). This means that, if 100 children were treated, 8 would be prevented from developing bad outcomes. Another way of expressing this is the number needed to treat (NNT). If 8 children out of 100 benefit from treatment, the NNT for one child to benefit is about 13 (100 ÷ 8 = 12.5). CER = 20 / 400 = 1 / 20 = 0.05, EER = 10 / 400 = 0.025, ARR =CER – EER = 0.025

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
144.5
Seconds
• #### Question 10 - Which one of the following statements regarding epidemiological measures is correct? ...

Correct

• Which one of the following statements regarding epidemiological measures is correct?

Your Answer: Cross-sectional surveys can be used to estimate the prevalence of a condition in the population

Explanation:

The incidence rate is the number of new cases per population at risk in a given time period. For example, if a population initially contains 1,000 non-diseased persons and 28 develop a condition over two years of observation, the incidence proportion is 28 cases per 1,000 persons per two years, i.e. 2.8% per two years.Prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is derived by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage, or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.Incidence should not be confused with prevalence, which is the proportion of cases in the population at a given time rather than rate of occurrence of new cases. Thus, incidence conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease, whereas prevalence indicates how widespread the disease is.

• This question is part of the following fields:

• Medicine
• Research Skills
21.4
Seconds

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Medicine (7/10) 70%
Research Skills (7/10) 70%