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  • Question 1 - Gastrocnemius, semimembranosus and semitendinosus together with which other muscle form the boundaries of...

    Incorrect

    • Gastrocnemius, semimembranosus and semitendinosus together with which other muscle form the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

      Your Answer: Adductor magnus

      Correct Answer: Biceps femoris

      Explanation:

      The popliteal fossa is located at the back of the knee. It is bounded laterally by the biceps femoris above and the plantaris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius below and medially by the semitendinosus and semimembranosus above and by the medial head of the gastrocnemius below.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Lower Limb
      26.9
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - The mandibular nerve, which is the largest of the 3 divisions of the...

    Correct

    • The mandibular nerve, which is the largest of the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve, exits the cranial cavity through which foramen?

      Your Answer: Foramen ovale

      Explanation:

      At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is one of the larger of the several holes that transmit nerves through the skull. The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve, motor root of the trigeminal nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, emissary vein connecting the cavernous sinus with the pterygoid plexus of veins and occasionally the anterior trunk of the middle meningeal vein.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      27.5
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - A chest x ray of a patient reveals loculated fluid in the right...

    Correct

    • A chest x ray of a patient reveals loculated fluid in the right chest, which can be easily aspirated if the needle is inserted through the body wall just above the 9th rib in the midaxillary line. Where is this fluid located?

      Your Answer: Costodiaphragmatic recess

      Explanation:

      The costodiaphragmatic recess is the lowest point of the pleural sac where the costal pleura becomes the diaphragmatic pleura. At the midclavicular line, this is found between ribs 6 and 8; at the paravertebral lines, between ribs 10 and 12 and between ribs 8 and 10 at the midaxillary line.

      The cardiac notch: is an indentation of the heart on the left lung, located on the anterior surface of the lung.

      Cupola: part of the parietal pleura that extends above the first rib.

      Oblique pericardial sinus: part of the pericardial sac located posterior to the heart behind the left atrium.

      Costomediastinal recess: a reflection of the pleura from the costal surface to the mediastinal surface, is on the anterior surface of the chest.

      The inferior mediastinum: is the space in the chest occupied by the heart.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      25.3
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - The orbicularis oculi us a muscle that closes the eyelids. What is the...

    Incorrect

    • The orbicularis oculi us a muscle that closes the eyelids. What is the motor innervation of this muscle?

      Your Answer: A branch of the same nerve that innervates the orbicularis oris muscle

      Correct Answer: A branch of a nerve that exits through the stylomastoid foramen

      Explanation:

      The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids. It is supplied by zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which exits through the stylomastoid foramen.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      34.5
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - A patient sustained an iatrogenic injury to one of the structures passing through...

    Correct

    • A patient sustained an iatrogenic injury to one of the structures passing through the deep inguinal ring. This was during an operation to repair an inguinal hernia. Which structure is most likely to be injured?

      Your Answer: Round ligament of the uterus

      Explanation:

      The deep inguinal ring transmits the spermatic cord in the man and the round ligament of the uterus in the female. It is bound below and medially by the inferior epigastric vessels (so these don’t go through it).

      The ilioinguinal nerve, although it courses through the inguinal canal, does not pass through it.

      The iliohypogastric nerves run between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis in the abdominal wall, piercing the internal oblique at the anterior superior iliac spine to travel just deep to the external oblique.

      The inferior epigastric artery runs between the transversus abdominis and the peritoneum forming the lateral umbilical fold.

      The medial umbilical ligament is the obliterated umbilical artery that it lies within the medial umbilical fold of peritoneum.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      23.4
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - Regarding abduction of the digits of the hand, which of the following is...

    Correct

    • Regarding abduction of the digits of the hand, which of the following is correct?

      Your Answer: All of the adductors of the digits take at least part of their attachments from metacarpal bones

      Explanation:

      Lying on the palmer surfaces of the metacarpal bones are four palmar interossei which are smaller than the dorsal interossei. Arising from the entire length of the metacarpal bone of one finger, is a palmar interosseous, which is inserted into the side of the base of the first phalanx and the aponeurotic expansion of the extensor digitorum communis tendon to the same finger. All the interossei are innervated by the eighth cervical nerve, through the deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve. The palmar interossei adducts the fingers to an imaginary line drawn longitudinally through the centre of the middle finger.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      33.3
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - A swimmer was struggling to finish his training following an injury to his...

    Correct

    • A swimmer was struggling to finish his training following an injury to his right arm. On further examination it was found that any movements involving adduction, medial rotation and extension of her arm were particularly weak. Which nerve in this case was damaged?

      Your Answer: Thoracodorsal

      Explanation:

      Weakness on these particular movements indicate that there is a problem with the latissimus dorsi muscle. This muscle is very important particularly in swimming movements and is supplied by the thoracodorsal nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      22.4
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - Inside the palatoglossal arch is a muscle. Which nerve innervates this muscle? ...

    Correct

    • Inside the palatoglossal arch is a muscle. Which nerve innervates this muscle?

      Your Answer: X

      Explanation:

      The palatoglossal arch contains the palatoglossal muscle which is innervated by the vagus nerve which is the tenth cranial nerve. So the correct answer is X

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      15.6
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - Which of the following structures carry part of the right bundle branch of...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following structures carry part of the right bundle branch of the AV bundle?

      Your Answer: Anterior papillary muscle of the left ventricle

      Correct Answer: Moderator band (septomarginal trabecula)

      Explanation:

      The moderator band extends from the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the ventricular septum. It is the structure which carries part of the right AV bundle. Its role it to prevent overdistention of the ventricle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      31.2
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - The muscle that depresses the glenoid fossa directly is the: ...

    Correct

    • The muscle that depresses the glenoid fossa directly is the:

      Your Answer: Pectoralis minor

      Explanation:

      Situated at the upper part of the thorax beneath the pectoralis major, is a thin pectoralis minor, triangular muscle. It originates from the third, fourth and fifth ribs, near the cartilage and from the aponeurosis which covers the intercostals. These fibres move upwards and laterally to join and form a flat tendon. This is inserted into the medial border and upper surface of the coracoid process of the scapula. Through this medial anterior thoracic nerve, fibres from the pectoralis minor are received from the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves. This pectoralis minor pushes down on the point of the shoulder (glenoid fossa), drawing the scapula downward and medially towards the thorax which throws the inferior angle backwards.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      15.5
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - Due to a plantarflexion–inversion ankle sprain, which is the first ligament to rupture?...

    Correct

    • Due to a plantarflexion–inversion ankle sprain, which is the first ligament to rupture?

      Your Answer: Anterior talofibular ligament

      Explanation:

      The anterior talofibular ligament passes from the anterior margin of the fibular malleolus. It is the most commonly injured ligament, as part of the lateral ligament of the ankle.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Lower Limb
      15.1
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - The surgical registrar is doing an exploratory laparotomy on a 35 year old...

    Correct

    • The surgical registrar is doing an exploratory laparotomy on a 35 year old lady of African descent with tuberculous of the abdomen and suspected perforation. The small bowel is matted due to adhesions and it is difficult to differentiate the ileum from the jejunum. Which of the following features is typical of the jejunum?

      Your Answer: It has sparse aggregated lymph nodules

      Explanation:

      The jejunum has a wider diameter, is thicker and more vascularized, hence of a deeper colour compared to the ileum. The valvulae conniventes (circular folds) of its mucous membranes are large and thick and its villi are larger than those in the ileum. The jejunum also has sparse aggregates of lymph nodules and most of its part occupies the umbilical and left iliac regions whilst the ileum is mostly in the umbilical, hypogastric, right iliac and pelvic regions.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      33.9
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - The circle of Willis is one of the cerebrovascular safeguards comprised of the...

    Incorrect

    • The circle of Willis is one of the cerebrovascular safeguards comprised of the left and the right posterior communicating artery. Which of the following arteries in the brain is connected to the posterior cerebral artery by these posterior communicating arteries?

      Your Answer: Vertebral artery

      Correct Answer: Internal carotid artery

      Explanation:

      The Circle of Willis is an anastomosis of cerebral arteries that are located at the base of the brain. The Circle of Willis is one of the important safeguards that ensure back up of blood supply to parts of the brain in case of any cerebrovascular accident. The Circle of Willis is made up of an anterior portion of arteries including; the anterior cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral arteries are connected to the posterior portion of the circle of Willis by the anterior communicating artery. The posterior portion is made up of the posterior cerebral artery which branch off from the basilar artery. The posterior cerebral artery are connected to the anterior portion of the circle of Willis by the posterior communicating artery. The posterior communicating artery connects the posterior cerebral artery to the internal carotid artery. The circle of Willis receives blood supply from the left and right internal carotid arteries that continues as the middle cerebral artery and posteriorly from the two vertebral arteries that join to form the basilar artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      21.2
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - Internal haemorrhoids are painless and only sensitive to stretch. They are formed from...

    Incorrect

    • Internal haemorrhoids are painless and only sensitive to stretch. They are formed from folds of the mucous membrane and the submucosa of the anal canal which contain varicose branches of the:

      Your Answer: Inferior rectal vein

      Correct Answer: Superior rectal vein

      Explanation:

      Internal haemorrhoids are formed by varicosities of the branches of the superior rectal vein.

      External haemorrhoids are formed by varicosities of the branches of the inferior rectal vein.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Colorectal
      28.5
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - An old woman complains of a lack of sensation halfway down the anterior...

    Correct

    • An old woman complains of a lack of sensation halfway down the anterior surface of the thigh. The cause of this:

      Your Answer: Would result from damage to the nerve that innervates the pectineus muscle

      Explanation:

      The pectineus is supplied by the second, third and fourth lumbar nerves through the femoral nerve and by the third lumbar through the accessory obturator when it exists. The anterior surface of the thigh receives its innervation from the femoral nerve as well, thus this is the nerve most likely to be injured

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Lower Limb
      30.8
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - A CT-scan of the lung shows a tumour crossing the minor (horizontal) fissure....

    Correct

    • A CT-scan of the lung shows a tumour crossing the minor (horizontal) fissure. This fissure separates:

      Your Answer: The middle lobe from the upper lobe

      Explanation:

      The horizontal fissure separates the upper lobe from the middle lobe. The oblique fissure on the other hand separates the lower lobe from both the middle and upper lobes. The lingula is found only on the left lung.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      17.7
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - A 50 year old male point was diagnosed with tennis elbow that became...

    Correct

    • A 50 year old male point was diagnosed with tennis elbow that became worse after he started playing basket ball over the last three months. He was admitted to the orthopaedic ward to have elbow braces fitted. What type of synovial joint is the elbow joint?

      Your Answer: Hinge

      Explanation:

      The elbow joint is one of the many synovial joints in the body. This joint is an example of the hinge joint as the humerus is received into the semilunar notch of the ulna and the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the fovea on the head of the radius, together acting as a hinge in one plane.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      27.9
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - Structures passing through the foramen magnum do NOT include the: ...

    Incorrect

    • Structures passing through the foramen magnum do NOT include the:

      Your Answer: Accessory nerve

      Correct Answer: Vagus nerve

      Explanation:

      Structures passing through the foramen magnum include the medulla, meninges, tectorial membrane, anterior spinal artery, vertebral artery and spinal branches of the accessory nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      22.8
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - The following organs would be expected to lie within the right lower quadrant...

    Correct

    • The following organs would be expected to lie within the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, assuming that the gastrointestinal tract is rotated normally:

      Your Answer: Distal jejunum, caecum, vermiform appendix

      Explanation:

      The abdomen is divided by theoretical anatomic lines into four quadrants. The median plane follows the linea alba and extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis and splits the abdomen in half. The transumbilical plane is a horizontal line that runs at the level of the umbilicus. This forms the upper right and left quadrants and the lower right and left quadrants. Structures in the right lower quadrant include: caecum, appendix, part of the small intestine, ascending colon, the right half of the female reproductive system, right ureter. Pain in this region is most commonly associated with appendicitis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      28.7
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - A elderly patient with bulbar palsy is bed ridden. While swallowing he aspirates...

    Incorrect

    • A elderly patient with bulbar palsy is bed ridden. While swallowing he aspirates one of his tablets into his lungs. In which bronchopulmonary segments is it most likely to end up?

      Your Answer: Medial segmental bronchus of the right middle lobe

      Correct Answer: Superior segmental bronchus of the right inferior lobe

      Explanation:

      Inhaled objects are more likely to enter the right lung for several reasons. First the right bronchus is shorter, wider and more vertical than the left bronchus. Also, the carina (a ridge-like structure at the point of tracheal bifurcation) is set a little towards the left. The superior segmental bronchus branches posteriorly off the intermediate bronchus or the inferior lobe bronchus and is thus more likely to receive the foreign body that enters the right main bronchus. The lingula is only found on the left lung. The terminal bronchiole is a very small space almost impossible for the tablet to lodge here.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      54.5
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - A 51-year old woman after undergoing a barium swallowing was discovered to be...

    Incorrect

    • A 51-year old woman after undergoing a barium swallowing was discovered to be suffering from an oesophageal hiatal hernia. Which muscle fibres of the diaphragm border this hernia directly if the stomach herniates through an enlarged oesophageal hiatus?

      Your Answer: Sternal fibres

      Correct Answer: Right crus

      Explanation:

      The oesophageal hiatus is a natural fissure on the thoracic diaphragm that allows passage of the oesophagus and the vagal nerve. The oesophageal hiatus is located in one of the tendinous structures of the diaphragm that connect it to the spine which is known as the right crus. In case of an hiatal hernia, this diaphragmatic structure would be the one bordering the hernia as it is the structure that encircles the oesophageal hiatus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      85.5
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Enlargement of the spleen as seen in Gaucher's disease pushes the spleen downward...

    Correct

    • Enlargement of the spleen as seen in Gaucher's disease pushes the spleen downward and medially. What structure limits the straight-vertical-downward movement?

      Your Answer: Left colic flexure

      Explanation:

      The left colic flexure (also known as the splenic flexure), is the point where the colon takes a sharp turn downwards. It is the point where the transverse colon ends and the descending colon begins. It is located immediately inferior to the spleen so an enlarged spleen must move medially to avoid this colic flexure.

      The left suprarenal gland is retroperitoneal.

      The Ligament of Treitz suspends the fourth part of the duodenum from the posterior abdominal wall.

      The stomach, pancreas and liver lie medial to the spleen and thus would not prevent a vertical downward movement.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      22.1
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - A space defined by the teres major muscle, the teres minor muscle, long...

    Correct

    • A space defined by the teres major muscle, the teres minor muscle, long head of the triceps brachii muscle and surgical neck of the humerus contains the axillary nerve and the?

      Your Answer: Posterior circumflex humeral artery

      Explanation:

      This quadrangular space transmits the posterior circumflex humeral vessels and the axillary nerve.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      27.8
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - Which of the following clinical signs will be demonstrated in a case of...

    Correct

    • Which of the following clinical signs will be demonstrated in a case of Brown-Séquard syndrome due to hemisection of the spinal cord at mid-thoracic level?

      Your Answer: Ipsilateral spastic paralysis, ipsilateral loss of vibration and proprioception (position sense) and contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation beginning one or two segments below the lesion

      Explanation:

      Brown–Séquard syndrome results due to lateral hemisection of the spinal cord and results in a loss of motricity (paralysis and ataxia) and sensation. The hemisection of the cord results in a lesion of each of the three main neural systems: the principal upper motor neurone pathway of the corticospinal tract, one or both dorsal columns and the spinothalamic tract. As a result of the injury to these three main brain pathways the patient will present with three lesions. The corticospinal lesion produces spastic paralysis on the same side of the body (the loss of moderation by the upper motor neurons). The lesion to fasciculus gracilis or fasciculus cuneatus results in ipsilateral loss of vibration and proprioception (position sense). The loss of the spinothalamic tract leads to pain and temperature sensation being lost from the contralateral side beginning one or two segments below the lesion. At the lesion site, all sensory modalities are lost on the same side, and an ipsilateral flaccid paralysis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Neurology
      • Physiology
      27.3
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - A 60 year old female patient who has suffered an embolic stroke that...

    Incorrect

    • A 60 year old female patient who has suffered an embolic stroke that affected her middle cerebral artery as revealed by a CT scan is likely to exhibit which of the following neurologic conditions?

      Your Answer: Ipsilateral hemiplegia

      Correct Answer: Contralateral hemiplegia

      Explanation:

      The middle cerebral artery is a major artery that supplies blood to the cerebrum. It continues from the internal carotid artery up into the lateral sulcus. The middle cerebral artery mainly supplies the lateral aspect of the cerebral cortex, anterior aspect of the temporal lobes and the insular cortices.

      Functional areas supplied by this vein are as follows:

      The motor and pre-motor areas

      The somato-sensory

      Auditory areas

      Motor speech

      Sensory speech

      Pre-frontal area

      Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in:

      i) A severe contralateral hemiplegia, most marked in the upper extremity and face

      ii) A contralateral sensory impairment worse in the upper part of the body.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Head & Neck
      37.9
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - On exploration of an axillary wound, a branch from the third part of...

    Incorrect

    • On exploration of an axillary wound, a branch from the third part of the axillary artery was found to be transected. Which of the following arteries would have been likely injured?

      Your Answer: Lateral thoracic

      Correct Answer: Anterior humeral circumflex

      Explanation:

      The axillary artery gives off many branches from the first, second, or third parts along its course. The third part of the axillary artery gives off two branches: the anterior humeral circumflex artery and the posterior humeral circumflex artery.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      14.9
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - An operation to resect a tumour of the right lung was stopped as...

    Incorrect

    • An operation to resect a tumour of the right lung was stopped as the chest surgeon said that the tumour was crossing the oblique fissure. Which structures are separated by the oblique fissure of the right lung?

      Your Answer: Lower lobe from upper lobe only

      Correct Answer: Lower lobe from both upper and middle lobes

      Explanation:

      The oblique fissure on the right lung separates the lower lobe from both the middle and upper lobe. The lingual is only found on the left lung and is part of the upper lobe.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Thorax
      57.4
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - Which of the following arteries branches from the deep femoral artery and courses...

    Correct

    • Which of the following arteries branches from the deep femoral artery and courses between the pectineus and iliopsoas muscles?

      Your Answer: Medical femoral circumflex

      Explanation:

      The medial femoral circumflex artery is an artery in the upper thigh that supplies blood to the head and neck of the femur. It arises from the deep femoral artery and winds around the medial side of the femur. It passes first between pectineus and psoas major, and then between obturator externus and adductor brevis.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Lower Limb
      24.6
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - An old man fell and fractured a carpal bone articulating with the pisiform...

    Correct

    • An old man fell and fractured a carpal bone articulating with the pisiform bone. Which bone was most likely fractured?

      Your Answer: Triquetral

      Explanation:

      The pisiform bone has an oval facet for articulation with the triquetral bone. The pisiform bone is a sesamoid bone, and is anterior to the other carpal bones.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Anatomy
      • Upper Limb
      18.7
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - During an anatomy revision session, medical students are told that the posterior wall...

    Correct

    • During an anatomy revision session, medical students are told that the posterior wall of the rectus sheath ends in a thin curved margin whose concavity is directed downwards. What is the name of this inferior border of the rectus sheath?

      Your Answer: Arcuate line

      Explanation:

      The rectus sheath is a tendinous sheath that encloses the rectus abdominis muscle. It covers the entire anterior surface however on the posterior surface of the muscle the sheath is incomplete ending inferiorly at the arcuate line. Below the arcuate line, the rectus abdominis is covered by the transversalis fascia. The linea alba is a band of aponeurosis on the midline of the anterior abdominal wall, which extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis. It is formed by the combined abdominal muscle aponeuroses. This is a useful site for midline incision during abdominal surgery because it does not carry many blood vessels. All of the other answer choices are related to the inguinal canal.

      The falx inguinalis (sometimes called the inguinal falx or conjoint tendon), is the inferomedial attachment of the transversus abdominis with some fibres of the internal abdominal oblique – it contributes to the posterior wall of the inguinal canal.

      The inguinal ligament is the ligament that connects the anterior superior iliac spine with the pubic tubercle – it makes the floor of the inguinal canal.

      The internal (deep) inguinal ring is the entrance to the inguinal canal, where the transversalis fascia pouches out and creates an opening through which structures can leave the abdominal cavity.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Abdomen
      • Anatomy
      25.9
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Anatomy (18/29) 62%
Lower Limb (3/4) 75%
Head & Neck (2/6) 33%
Thorax (2/5) 40%
Abdomen (5/6) 83%
Upper Limb (6/7) 86%
Colorectal (0/1) 0%
Neurology (1/1) 100%
Physiology (1/1) 100%
Passmed