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  • Question 1 - The premotor cortex is: ...

    Incorrect

    • The premotor cortex is:

      Your Answer: Brodmann area 8

      Correct Answer: Brodmann area 6

      Explanation:

      A Brodmann area in the brain is defined by cytoarchitecture, histology and organization of cells:Primary Sensory 3,1,2Primary Motor 4Premotor 6Primary Visual 17Primary Auditory 41Brocas 44

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      29.1
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - An example of cholinergic autonomic neurons are: ...

    Incorrect

    • An example of cholinergic autonomic neurons are:

      Your Answer: Sympathetic postganglionic neurons that decreases motility and tone of the stomach.

      Correct Answer: Sympathetic postganglionic neurons that innervate sweat glands.

      Explanation:

      All preganglionic neurons in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system secrete acetylcholine. The postganglionic neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system in all neurons is acetylcholine. Postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system mainly secrete Noradrenalin and Adrenalin but at sweat glands and erector pili muscles the postganglionic neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      86.8
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - The hippocampus is involved in the memory of: ...

    Correct

    • The hippocampus is involved in the memory of:

      Your Answer: Facts

      Explanation:

      The hippocampus plays an important role in forming new memories about experienced events. Some researchers say that hippocampus plays a major role in declarative memory for example memory of facts.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      12.8
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - Which of the following forms the language areas of the cerebral cortex? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following forms the language areas of the cerebral cortex?

      Your Answer: Wernicke’s area

      Correct Answer: All of the above

      Explanation:

      Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, the submarginal sulcus and the angular gyrus all form the language areas of the cerebral cortex.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      90.7
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - Increase Gamma motor neuron activity produces what effect on the muscle spindle sensitivity?...

    Incorrect

    • Increase Gamma motor neuron activity produces what effect on the muscle spindle sensitivity?

      Your Answer: Minimal decrease

      Correct Answer: Increase

      Explanation:

      The muscle spindle is supplied by both sensory and motor nerves. Sensory supply is Type Ia fibers whereas motor supply is via gamma motor neurons. These neurons also play a role in adjusting the sensitivity of muscle spindles. Increased neuron activity increases the muscle spindle sensitivity.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      150.6
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - Choose the correct answer: The interposed nuclei… ...

    Incorrect

    • Choose the correct answer: The interposed nuclei…

      Your Answer: All of the above

      Correct Answer: Are the emboliform and globose nuclei in the paravermis

      Explanation:

      The interposed nuclei are a part of deep cerebellar complex and are composed of the globose nucleus and the emboliform nucleus. It receives afferent fibers from the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and sends output via the superior cerebellar peduncle to the red nucleus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      77.4
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - The tegmentum as part of the midbrain, contains which cranial nerve nuclei? ...

    Incorrect

    • The tegmentum as part of the midbrain, contains which cranial nerve nuclei?

      Your Answer: CN 3, 4, 6

      Correct Answer: CN 5 to 8

      Explanation:

      The pontine tegmentum also known as dorsal pons is located within the brain stem. Several cranial nerve nuclei are located in the pontine tegmentum. The nuclei of CN V, CN VI, CN VII and CNVIII are located in the pontine tegmentum.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      40.1
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - What is found in the posterior cavity of the eye? ...

    Correct

    • What is found in the posterior cavity of the eye?

      Your Answer: Vitreous humor

      Explanation:

      The eye ball contains an anterior cavity and a posterior cavity. The anterior cavity once again is divided into the anterior chamber and posterior chamber. The anterior cavity is filled with aqueous humor whereas the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      11.6
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - Which part of the neuron has the highest concentration of sodium channels per...

    Incorrect

    • Which part of the neuron has the highest concentration of sodium channels per square millimetre of the cell membrane?

      Your Answer: Cell body 50-75

      Correct Answer: Nodes of Ranvier

      Explanation:

      The nodes of Ranvier contain Na+/K+ ATPases, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and a high density of Na+ channels. The estimated concentration of sodium channels in the node is of ∼1500/μm2.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      36.8
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - Where is the M1 receptor mainly found? ...

    Incorrect

    • Where is the M1 receptor mainly found?

      Your Answer: Pancreatic acinar cells

      Correct Answer: Sympathetic postganglionic neurons

      Explanation:

      M1 receptors are found in the sympathetic postganglionic neurons.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      70.9
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the following two areas: ...

    Correct

    • Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the following two areas:

      Your Answer: Hippocampus and striatum

      Explanation:

      In humans, neurogenesis or new neurons are continually born during adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the striatum. In other species of mammals, adult-born neurons also appear in the olfactory bulb. In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      24.5
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - The layers of the neocortex from the 1st to the 6th are arranged...

    Incorrect

    • The layers of the neocortex from the 1st to the 6th are arranged as follows:

      Your Answer: None of the above

      Correct Answer: Molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal, multiform

      Explanation:

      The layers of neocortex from outermost to innermost include: the molecular, external granular layer, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layer.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      79.8
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - The consensual light reflex is co-ordinated mainly in the: ...

    Incorrect

    • The consensual light reflex is co-ordinated mainly in the:

      Your Answer: Ciliary nucleus

      Correct Answer: Edinger-Westphal nucleus

      Explanation:

      The consensual light reflex occurs when an individual’s right eye is shielded and light shines into the left eye, constriction of the right pupil will occur, as well as the left. This is because the afferent signal sent through one optic nerve connects to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, whose axons run to both the right and the left oculomotor nerves.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      64.3
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - The majority of corticospinal tract fibers decussate in the: ...

    Correct

    • The majority of corticospinal tract fibers decussate in the:

      Your Answer: Medulla

      Explanation:

      The corticospinal tract is a descending motor path way that begins in the cerebral cortex and decussates in the pyramids of the medulla.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      4
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - Where are the cell bodies to the preganglionic neurons located? ...

    Incorrect

    • Where are the cell bodies to the preganglionic neurons located?

      Your Answer: Intermediolateral column

      Correct Answer: Midbrain

      Explanation:

      The cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons are located in the lateral grey column of the spinal cord and in the motor nuclei of the 3rd, 7th, 9th and 10th cranial nerves. These cranial nerves take origin from the midbrain.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      50.6
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - Interruption of the left optic tract will result in which visual field defect?...

    Incorrect

    • Interruption of the left optic tract will result in which visual field defect?

      Your Answer: Left homonymous hemianopia

      Correct Answer: Right homonymous hemianopia

      Explanation:

      Right homonymous hemianopia is due to a lesion or pressure on the left optic tract. Total blindness of the left eye is due to a complete occlusion of the left optic nerve. Bipolar hemianopia is due to a midline chiasmal lesion. Left nasal hemianopia due to a lesion involving the left perichiasmal area. Right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia is due to involvement of the lower left optic radiations.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      95.7
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - Which neurotransmitter is made from hydroxylation and decarboxylation of tryptophan? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which neurotransmitter is made from hydroxylation and decarboxylation of tryptophan?

      Your Answer: Dopamine

      Correct Answer: Serotonin

      Explanation:

      Serotonin is synthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The rate-limiting step is the conversion of the amino acid to 5-hydroxytryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase. This is then converted to serotonin by the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      118.2
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - Afferent A δ fibers from nociceptors terminate primarily on neurons in which lamina:...

    Correct

    • Afferent A δ fibers from nociceptors terminate primarily on neurons in which lamina:

      Your Answer: I and V

      Explanation:

      Nociceptors are receptors of pain sensation. There are 2 primary afferent/sensory pain fibers which transmit impulses from the receptor to the CNS, specifically to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The two fibers are A δ and C fibers. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the relay centre for sensory information converging from the periphery. Grey matter of the dorsal horn is subdivided in to laminae based on cytoarchitecture. C fibers terminate in lamina II the substantia gelatinosa. A δ fibers terminate primarily in lamina I but some project more deeply to terminate in lamina V.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      30.9
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - The axons of which neurons serve as the only output from the cerebellar...

    Incorrect

    • The axons of which neurons serve as the only output from the cerebellar cortex?

      Your Answer: Golgi

      Correct Answer: Purkinje

      Explanation:

      The cerebellar cortex consist of 3 layers. The molecular layer, the granule cell layer and the Purkinje cell layer in the middle. The Purkinje cells project into the deep cerebellar nuclei. They are the only output cells of the cerebellar cortex.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      49.4
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - Endolymph in the inner ear is rich in: ...

    Incorrect

    • Endolymph in the inner ear is rich in:

      Your Answer: Chloride

      Correct Answer: K

      Explanation:

      Cochlear fluids namely endolymph and perilymph have different compositions. Perilymph is a typical extracellular fluid, with ionic composition comparable to plasma or cerebrospinal fluid. The main cation is sodium. Endolymph is a totally unique extracellular fluid, with an ion composition unlike that which is found anywhere else in the body. The major cation in the endolymph is potassium and there is virtually no sodium.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      54
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - On which presynaptic receptor does noradrenalin act to inhibit noradrenalin secretion? ...

    Incorrect

    • On which presynaptic receptor does noradrenalin act to inhibit noradrenalin secretion?

      Your Answer: Β3 receptor

      Correct Answer: Α2 receptor

      Explanation:

      Adregenic receptors are A1, A2, B1, B2, B3. Out of these, the function of the A2 receptor is inhibition of transmitter release including nor adrenalin and acetylcholine of the autonomic nervous system.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      79.5
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Which of the following tracts are involved in the control of vital functions?...

    Correct

    • Which of the following tracts are involved in the control of vital functions?

      Your Answer: Reticulospinal

      Explanation:

      Reticulospinal tract pass down from the reticular formation of the mid brain, pons and medulla. It descends in the lateral white column. Both sets of fibers enter the anterior grey column and may facilitate or inhibit the gamma and alpha neurons. By this means the reticulospinal tract controls voluntary and reflex activities. It also contains the descending autonomic fiber, thus providing a pathway for the hypothalamus to control the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      28.3
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - Visual pathways - Choose the true statement: ...

    Correct

    • Visual pathways - Choose the true statement:

      Your Answer: The lateral geniculate nucleus, magnocellular & parvocellular pathways project to the primary visual cortex

      Explanation:

      The optic chiasm is made by the decussation of optic fibers on the nasal side. The magnocellular pathway carries signals for detection of movement. The parvocellular pathway carries cells for detection of shape, size, colour and clarity. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the relay centre in the thalamus for he visual pathway. It has layers of magnocellular cells and parvocellular cells that are interleaved with layers of koniocellular cells. The LGN is the main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe, particularly the primary visual cortex.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      119.8
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - Which of the following runs in the upper part of the falx cerebri?...

    Correct

    • Which of the following runs in the upper part of the falx cerebri?

      Your Answer: Superior sagittal sinus

      Explanation:

      Falx cerebri is a sickle cell fold of dura between the two hemispheres. Its posterior part blends with the superior part of the tentorium cerebelli. The superior sagittal sinus runs in its upper fixed margin, the inferior sagittal sinus in the free concave margin and the straight sinus along its attachment to the tentorium cerebelli.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      38.8
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - Dynein proteins transmit polypeptides/proteins in which direction? ...

    Incorrect

    • Dynein proteins transmit polypeptides/proteins in which direction?

      Your Answer: Both anterograde and retrograde

      Correct Answer: From axons terminals to cell body (retrograde)

      Explanation:

      The majority of axonal proteins are synthesised in the cell body and transported along the axons. Microtubules run along the length of the axon and provide tracks for transportation. Kinesin and Dynein are motor proteins that transport proteins and other organelles. Kinesin moves forward or anterograde transport from cell body to axon, whereas Dynein moves retrograde from axon to cell body.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      52.8
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - Salty taste is triggered by: ...

    Correct

    • Salty taste is triggered by:

      Your Answer: Amiloride-sensitive sodium channel

      Explanation:

      Amiloride-sensitive sodium channels also known as epithelial Na channels is a membrane bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions. These channels are located throughout different epithelial membranes in the body. It is found in taste receptor cells, where it plays an important role in salt taste perception. They are also located in the kidney, the lung and the colon. Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) voltage-gated ion channels are widely seen in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and brain regions that underlie the generation of both focal and generalized-onset seizures. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluRs) perform a variety of functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They are involved in learning, memory, anxiety, and the perception of pain. Gustducin is a G protein associated with taste and gustatory system. It plays a major role in sensation of bitter, sweet and umami stimuli.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      33.9
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - Which one of the following neurotransmitters is considered a monoamine? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which one of the following neurotransmitters is considered a monoamine?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Acetylcholine

      Explanation:

      Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system. Monoamine neurotransmitters contain only one amino group joined to an aromatic ring. Acetylcholine is produced from acetyl-CoA and choline.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - The cerebellum consist of which three lobes? ...

    Incorrect

    • The cerebellum consist of which three lobes?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Anterior, posterior and flocculonodular

      Explanation:

      The cerebellum consists of 3 lobes; Anterior, Posterior and Flocculonodular lobe.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - Regarding the innervation of the cerebral blood vessels, postganglionic sympathetic neurons have their...

    Incorrect

    • Regarding the innervation of the cerebral blood vessels, postganglionic sympathetic neurons have their cell bodies in the:

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Superior cervical ganglia

      Explanation:

      The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is a part of autonomic system which plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis of the body. This ganglion innervates structures in the head and neck and is the largest and the most superiorly located ganglion. The SCG provides sympathetic innervation to structures within the head, including the pineal gland, the blood vessels in the cranial muscles and the brain, the choroid plexus, the eyes, the lacrimal glands, the carotid body, the salivary glands, and the thyroid gland. The postganglionic axons of the SCG innervate the internal carotid artery and form the internal carotid plexus. The internal carotid plexus carries the postganglionic axons of the SCG to the eye, lacrimal gland, mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and pharynx, and numerous blood-vessels in the head.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      0
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - The inverse stretch reflex causing muscle relaxation when excessive force is applied to...

    Incorrect

    • The inverse stretch reflex causing muscle relaxation when excessive force is applied to a muscle is mediated by which sensory organ?

      Your Answer:

      Correct Answer: Golgi tendon organ

      Explanation:

      Both the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon body are proprioceptors. The Golgi tendon reflex is a normal component of the reflex arc of the peripheral nervous system. In a Golgi tendon reflex, skeletal muscle contraction causes the antagonist muscle to simultaneously lengthen and relax. This reflex is also called the inverse myotatic reflex, because it is the inverse of the stretch reflex.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Medicine
      • Neurology
      0
      Seconds

SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Medicine (9/26) 35%
Neurology (9/26) 35%
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