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  • Question 1 - A 27-year-old woman presents with a 4cm bleeding ulcer on her labia minora....

    Correct

    • A 27-year-old woman presents with a 4cm bleeding ulcer on her labia minora. The woman admits she is sexually active. Which lymph nodes will the ulcer drain to?

      Your Answer: Superficial inguinal

      Explanation:

      The woman seems to have a chancroid, which may or may not drain to the lymph nodes of the groin. These nodes are the superficial inguinal lymph nodes.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      331.6
      Seconds
  • Question 2 - A 45-year-old male presents to the clinic complaining of vomiting and early morning...

    Correct

    • A 45-year-old male presents to the clinic complaining of vomiting and early morning headaches. CT scan of the brain shows multiple ring enhancing lesions. Which of the following is the cause of this finding?

      Your Answer: Toxoplasmosis

      Explanation:

      Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Transmission occurs either through ingestion of cysts found, for example, in raw meat or cat faeces, or from mother to foetus through the placenta.
      The clinical presentation depends on the patient’s immune status: In immunocompetent individuals, 90% of cases are harmless and asymptomatic, with the remaining 10% displaying mild mononucleosis-like symptoms. In immunosuppressed patients (e.g., those who are HIV-positive), infection may result in cerebral toxoplasmosis (headache, confusion, focal neurologic deficits) or toxoplasma chorioretinitis (eye pain, reduced vision).
      Treatment is indicated for immunosuppressed patients, infected mothers, congenital toxoplasmosis, and immunocompetent patients with more severe symptoms. The treatment of choice is usually a combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin (folinic acid), with the exception of new infections during pregnancy, which are treated with spiramycin.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      87.8
      Seconds
  • Question 3 - A 30-year-old male presented with a history of bloody and mucoid diarrhoea since...

    Correct

    • A 30-year-old male presented with a history of bloody and mucoid diarrhoea since that morning. He is also complaining of abdominal spasm and bloating. Which of the following investigations is the most suitable one in this case?

      Your Answer: Stool culture and sensitivity

      Explanation:

      In a case of sudden bloody and mucoid diarrhoea, stool culture and sensitivity are required to access which organism is causing the problem and to discuss appropriate antibiotics.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      2.2
      Seconds
  • Question 4 - A 22-year-old female presents with a history of a whitish discharge from her...

    Correct

    • A 22-year-old female presents with a history of a whitish discharge from her vagina. She previously underwent a dental procedure and completed a 7 day antibiotic course prior to it. Which of the following microorganisms has most likely lead to this?

      Your Answer: Candida

      Explanation:

      Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidiasis and appears almost universally in low numbers on healthy skin, in the oropharyngeal cavity, and in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. In immunocompetent individuals, C. albicans usually causes minor localized infections, including thrush (affecting the oral cavity), vaginal yeast infections (if there is an underlying pH imbalance), and infections of the intertriginous areas of skin (e.g., the axillae or gluteal folds). More widespread and systemic infections may occur in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., neonates, diabetics, and HIV patients), with the oesophagus most commonly affected (candida esophagitis). Localized cutaneous candidiasis infections may be treated with topical antifungal agents (e.g., clotrimazole). More widespread and systemic infections require systemic therapy with fluconazole or caspofungin.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      28.5
      Seconds
  • Question 5 - A 38-year-old woman returns from a summer holiday with a dry cough. Her...

    Correct

    • A 38-year-old woman returns from a summer holiday with a dry cough. Her CXR shows bilateral consolidated areas. Which antibiotic would you suggest?

      Your Answer: Ciprofloxacin

      Explanation:

      Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      6.9
      Seconds
  • Question 6 - A baby is born with complications including microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly and elevated total bilirubin....

    Incorrect

    • A baby is born with complications including microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly and elevated total bilirubin. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis in this case?

      Your Answer: Syphilis

      Correct Answer: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

      Explanation:

      CMV infection is usually asymptomatic in adults. However, if the mother is infected for the first time during pregnancy then there is high chances of this infection passing on to the foetus. CMV infection can cause blindness, deafness, learning difficulties, restricted growth etc. Hepatitis B, herpes simplex, syphilis and HIV do not present with these classical signs of CMV infection in new-borns. It is estimated that 10 stillbirths occur in England and Wales every year due to CMV infection. The foetus is most at risk in early pregnancy. There is no effective prevention.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      8.7
      Seconds
  • Question 7 - A 30-year-old man has been unwell for the last 3 weeks and now...

    Incorrect

    • A 30-year-old man has been unwell for the last 3 weeks and now developed a rash. Chickenpox is diagnosed.
      What is the appropriate treatment?

      Your Answer: No medication

      Correct Answer: Acyclovir

      Explanation:

      You may treat chickenpox with acyclovir if it is commenced within the first 24 hours of the rash’s appearance. Erythromycin, doxycycline, and ampicillin would not help because it’s a viral infection (Varicella) not a bacterial infection.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      11.6
      Seconds
  • Question 8 - A 21-year-old man presents with a three day history of general malaise and...

    Incorrect

    • A 21-year-old man presents with a three day history of general malaise and low-grade temperature. Yesterday he developed extensive painful ulceration of his mouth and gums. On examination his temperature is 37.4ºC, pulse 84 / min and there is submandibular lymphadenopathy. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: HIV seroconversion illness

      Correct Answer: Herpes simplex virus infection

      Explanation:

      This man has gingivostomatitis, a characteristic feature of primary herpes simplex virus infection. Herpetic gingivostomatitis is often the initial presentation during the first (primary) herpes simplex infection. It is of greater severity than herpes labialis (cold sores) which is often the subsequent presentations. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is the most common viral infection of the mouth.
      Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis (PHGS) is caused predominantly by HSV-1 and affects mainly children. Prodromal symptoms, such as fever, anorexia, irritability, malaise and headache, may occur in advance of disease. Sub-mandibular lymphadenitis, halitosis and refusal to drink are usual concomitant findings.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      19
      Seconds
  • Question 9 - A 60-year-old male who has been on IV antibiotics for severe pneumonia developed...

    Correct

    • A 60-year-old male who has been on IV antibiotics for severe pneumonia developed profuse, watery, green coloured diarrhoea on the fifth day of antibiotics. What is the organism responsible for this condition?

      Your Answer: Clostridium difficile

      Explanation:

      The most probable cause for diarrhoea is pseudomembranous colitis which is caused by Clostridium difficile. Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colon where the antibiotic-induced change in the balance of normal gut flora allows overgrowth of C difficile. Any antibiotic can cause this but the chances are higher with ampicillin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      7.2
      Seconds
  • Question 10 - A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with type 2 diabetes presents with vomiting and diarrhoea...

    Incorrect

    • A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with type 2 diabetes presents with vomiting and diarrhoea after eating a meal of chicken and chips. She said her stool had small amounts of blood in. Campylobacter Jejuni was found on her stool culture exam. Which of the following is the most appropriate therapy?

      Your Answer: Metronidazole

      Correct Answer: IV fluids

      Explanation:

      Campylobacter is the most likely cause of diarrheal illness often due to undercooked meat being ingested. It is also a major cause of traveller’s diarrhoea. Sufficient fluid replacement and anti-emetics are indicated first followed by the antibiotic, Erythromycin although antibiotic treatment in adults is still in question. Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline may also be effective.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      14.8
      Seconds
  • Question 11 - A urine culture of a 50-year-old patient with urosepsis has isolated a multi-drug...

    Correct

    • A urine culture of a 50-year-old patient with urosepsis has isolated a multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli. What is the most likely reason for the multidrug resistance?

      Your Answer: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production

      Explanation:

      Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes that confer resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and the monobactam aztreonam. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production is the main reason for multi-drug resistance among E.coli. Commonly used medications to treat ESBL-involved infections include carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), cephamycins (cefoxitin and cefotetan), Fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, or sulbactam), non-beta-lactamases and colistin (if all other medications have failed.)

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      7.3
      Seconds
  • Question 12 - Regarding neonatal meningitis, which of the following statements is true? ...

    Correct

    • Regarding neonatal meningitis, which of the following statements is true?

      Your Answer: Has an above average incidence in babies with a meningomyelocele

      Explanation:

      The commonest time for bacterial meningitis is in the 1st month of life and group B Streptococcus is the commonest organism. The anterior fontanelle is full, but does not bulge with normal flexion. Neurological manifestations include seizures, irritability, poor tone, lethargy and tremors, however no findings of sensorineural deafness have been noted. One of the risk factors for introduction of meningeal infection is Meningomyelocele.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      10
      Seconds
  • Question 13 - A new-born male is admitted to NICU with convulsions, limb hypoplasia and rudimentary...

    Incorrect

    • A new-born male is admitted to NICU with convulsions, limb hypoplasia and rudimentary digits. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

      Your Answer: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

      Correct Answer: Varicella

      Explanation:

      Infection of chickenpox in the first half of pregnancy can result in congenital varicella syndrome. It presents as cerebral, cortical and cerebellar hypoplasia with convulsions and rudimentary digits. Prevention is by administering varicella vaccine, even before pregnancy. Varicella immunoglobulin is administered to pregnant women who are exposed to infection. Infection during pregnancy is treated with acyclovir.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      6.3
      Seconds
  • Question 14 - A 19-year-old woman is diagnosed with acute purulent meningitis after returning from a...

    Incorrect

    • A 19-year-old woman is diagnosed with acute purulent meningitis after returning from a recent holiday abroad. Which of the following investigations is the least relevant?

      Your Answer: An examination of fresh CSF with phase contrast microscopy

      Correct Answer: PCR of CSF for Mycobacterium TB

      Explanation:

      Amoebic, bacterial and fungal meningitis may present acutely but this is not common in tuberculous meningitis. Amoebic meningitis is caused by Naegleria fowleri as a result of swimming in infected freshwater. The organism may be found in fresh CSF specimens with phase contrast microscopy.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      24.4
      Seconds
  • Question 15 - A 32-year-old Indian male presents to the clinic with fever, cough and an...

    Correct

    • A 32-year-old Indian male presents to the clinic with fever, cough and an enlarged cervical lymph node. Examination reveals a caseating granuloma in the lymph node. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: TB adenitis

      Explanation:

      Tuberculous lymphadenitis is a chronic, specific granulomatous inflammation of the lymph node with caseation necrosis, caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or a related bacteria. The characteristic morphological element is the tuberculous granuloma (caseating tubercle).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      9.3
      Seconds
  • Question 16 - A woman who is 36 weeks pregnant presents with chickenpox. How should she...

    Correct

    • A woman who is 36 weeks pregnant presents with chickenpox. How should she be treated?

      Your Answer: Acyclovir

      Explanation:

      Acyclovir is the correct answer. There has been no documented evidence of harm in pregnancy yet. Chickenpox can cause fetal abnormalities, and varicella zoster Immunoglobulin should be given to the infant immediately after birth (not the mother, won’t help). Steroids will actually make the chicken pox worse. Painkillers only, is obviously the wrong answer and pose severe risk to foetus.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      3.7
      Seconds
  • Question 17 - An 18-year-old prospective medical student is tested for hepatitis B. Her liver tests...

    Incorrect

    • An 18-year-old prospective medical student is tested for hepatitis B. Her liver tests show alanine transaminase (ALT) 120 U/L and serology shows her to be positive for HBsAg, HBcAb and HBeAg, with a viral load of 105 genome equivalents/mL.

      A liver biopsy is reported as showing early fibrosis with evidence of moderate inflammation.

      Which of the following treatments should be offered?

      Your Answer: Interferon beta

      Correct Answer: Interferon alfa 2b

      Explanation:

      Interferon alfa alone, not interferon alfa and ribavirin, has been shown to achieve HBeAg seroconversion for patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      16.9
      Seconds
  • Question 18 - A 15-year-old girl is referred to the paediatric unit with reduced urine output...

    Incorrect

    • A 15-year-old girl is referred to the paediatric unit with reduced urine output and lethargy. She has been passing bloody diarrhoea for the past four days. On admission she appears dehydrated. Bloods show the following:


      Na+ 142 mmol/l
      K+ 4.8 mmol/l
      Bicarbonate 22 mmol/l
      Urea 10.1 mmol/l
      Creatinine 176 µmol/l


      Hb 10.4 g/dl
      MCV 90 fl
      Plt 91 * 109/l
      WBC 14.4 * 109/l

      Given the likely diagnosis, which one of the following organisms is the most likely cause?

      Your Answer: Salmonella

      Correct Answer: E. coli

      Explanation:

      The likely diagnosis in this case is Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), which is generally seen in young children presenting with a triad of symptoms, namely: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, and thrombocytopenia. The typical cause of HUS is ingestion of a strain of Escherichia coli.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      27.1
      Seconds
  • Question 19 - What is the mode of spread of chickenpox? ...

    Correct

    • What is the mode of spread of chickenpox?

      Your Answer: Airborne

      Explanation:

      Chickenpox is a highly communicable viral disease caused by human (alpha) herpesvirus 3 (varicella-zoster virus, VZV). It is transmitted from person to person by direct contact (touching the rash), droplet or air born spread (coughing and sneezing).

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      3
      Seconds
  • Question 20 - There are number of diseases that have to be notified to the consultant...

    Correct

    • There are number of diseases that have to be notified to the consultant responsible for communicable disease control. Which of the following conditions does not belong to above category?

      Your Answer: Pneumococcal pneumonia

      Explanation:

      There are number of diseases that have to be notified to relevant authorities to prevent or reduce their spread. Those conditions include Cholera, Diphtheria, Food poisoning, Infectious bloody diarrhoea, Malaria, Measles, Meningococcal septicaemia, Mumps, Plague, Rabies and Rubella.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      16.9
      Seconds
  • Question 21 - A 79-year-old nursing home resident presents to the clinic with an intensely itchy...

    Incorrect

    • A 79-year-old nursing home resident presents to the clinic with an intensely itchy rash. Examination reveals white linear lesions on the wrists and elbows, and red papules on the penile surface. Which of the following will be the most suitable management plan for this patient?

      Your Answer: Topical selenium sulphide hyoscine

      Correct Answer: Topical permethrin

      Explanation:

      Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei mite, which is primarily transmitted via direct human-to-human contact. The female scabies mite burrows into the superficial skin layer, causing severe pruritus, particularly at night. Primary lesions commonly include erythematous papules, vesicles, or burrows. Treatment involves topical medical therapy (e.g. permethrin) and decontamination of all clothing and textiles.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      18.3
      Seconds
  • Question 22 - Which of the following drugs is NOT used in the treatment of MRSA?...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following drugs is NOT used in the treatment of MRSA?

      Your Answer: Doxicycline

      Correct Answer: Ceftriaxone

      Explanation:

      Cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone, do not cover methicillin-resistant staph aureus. They do cover some gram positives and gram negatives. Vancomycin and teicoplanin given intravenously have good coverage of MRSA and other gram positive bacteria. Rifampicin and doxycycline, although not the best treatment, can be used for outpatients if there are no systemic signs of illness.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      7.9
      Seconds
  • Question 23 - A 32-year-old patient that has just returned from India, complains of dyspnoea. On...

    Incorrect

    • A 32-year-old patient that has just returned from India, complains of dyspnoea. On examination, you notice grey membranes on the uvula and tonsils and a low-grade fever. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Acute follicular tonsillitis

      Correct Answer: Diphtheria

      Explanation:

      Characteristic findings on patients suffering from diphtheria are the grey membrane on the uvula and tonsils together with the low grade fever and dyspnoea. It’s of great importance that the patient has recently been to India where there is a know prevalence.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      10.4
      Seconds
  • Question 24 - A 45-year-old male patient presents with severe pharyngitis and dysphagia. He's found to...

    Correct

    • A 45-year-old male patient presents with severe pharyngitis and dysphagia. He's found to be HIV positive and with oesophageal candidiasis. Which of the following regarding HIV virus is correct?

      Your Answer: HIV is an RNA virus

      Explanation:

      The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is grouped to the genus Lentivirus within the family of Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae. The HIV genome consists of two identical single-stranded RNA molecules that are enclosed within the core of the virus particle. The genome of the HIV provirus, also known as proviral DNA, is generated by the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA, degradation of the RNA and integration of the double-stranded HIV DNA into the human genome.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      93.1
      Seconds
  • Question 25 - A 17-year-old man presents with fever and extensive preauricular swelling on the right...

    Correct

    • A 17-year-old man presents with fever and extensive preauricular swelling on the right side of his face. However, tenderness is present bilaterally. He also complains of acute pain and otalgia on the right aspect of the face. What is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Mumps

      Explanation:

      Mumps presents with a prodromal phase of general malaise and fever. On examination there is usually painful parotid swelling which has high chances of becoming bilateral. In OM with effusion there are no signs of infection and the only symptom is usually hearing loss. Acute otitis externa produces otalgia as well as ear discharge and itching. Acute OM produces otalgia and specific findings upon otoscopy. In acute mastoiditis the patient experiences ear discharge, otalgia, headache, hearing loss and other general signs of inflammation.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      15.8
      Seconds
  • Question 26 - A 40-year-old male returning from an African country, presented with lower abdominal pain...

    Correct

    • A 40-year-old male returning from an African country, presented with lower abdominal pain and haematuria. Bladder calcifications were detected on abdominal x-ray. Which of the following is the most probable cause?

      Your Answer: Schistosoma haematobium

      Explanation:

      Schistosoma haematobium characteristically causes urinary tract disease. S.mansoni, S. mekongi, S. intercalatum, and S. japonicum cause intestinal tract and liver disease.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      10.6
      Seconds
  • Question 27 - Which of the following is the drug of choice for the treatment of...

    Correct

    • Which of the following is the drug of choice for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy?

      Your Answer: Amoxicillin

      Explanation:

      Tetracycline is not recommended in pregnancy because of the risk to fetal development (bones, teeth!). Metronidazole in pregnancy: currently not thought to be an increased risk in pregnancy; however this is not effective against chlamydia. Amoxicillin is shown to be an adequate treatment for chlamydia, so this is the correct answer.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      9.8
      Seconds
  • Question 28 - An 80-year-old female presents to OPD with itching hands, elbows, axillae and groin....

    Correct

    • An 80-year-old female presents to OPD with itching hands, elbows, axillae and groin. Other members residing with her at the retirement home also have similar complaints. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      Your Answer: Scabies

      Explanation:

      Scabies is due to an infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei and most commonly presents with these symptoms. The organism resides in burrows in a pattern specifically affecting the interdigital spaces and the skin folds of the arms and legs. The infection spreads from one person to another, especially in populated communities, through close contact.
      Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a type of vascular inflammation.
      Psoriasis rash is characterised by scaly plaques affecting the extensor surfaces of the body. Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid both are bullous disorders of the skin. They may present as crusted, weeping, diffuse lesions and there may be involvement in other sites; erosions in the mouth are typically involved in pemphigus vulgaris. Bullous pemphigoid involves the flexural areas and may be associated with a new medication.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      9.6
      Seconds
  • Question 29 - Which of the following procedures does not require antibiotic prophylaxis? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which of the following procedures does not require antibiotic prophylaxis?

      Your Answer: Total hip replacement

      Correct Answer: Dental procedure for a patient with an atrial septal defect

      Explanation:

      According to latest NICE guidelines, patients with isolated atrial septal defects do not require prophylactic antibiotics originally used in prevention of infective endocarditis in dental procedures.

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      18.6
      Seconds
  • Question 30 - Which one of the following is true regarding Escherichia coli infection? ...

    Incorrect

    • Which one of the following is true regarding Escherichia coli infection?

      Your Answer: It is a Gram negative coccus

      Correct Answer: E coli is an important cause of neonatal meningitis

      Explanation:

      Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria. Virulent strains can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis.
      The most common causes of neonatal meningitis is bacterial infection of the blood, known as bacteremia (specifically Group B Streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae), Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes). Although there is a low mortality rate in developed countries, there is a 50% prevalence rate of neurodevelopmental disabilities in E. coli and GBS meningitis

    • This question is part of the following fields:

      • Infectious Diseases
      14.2
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SESSION STATS - PERFORMANCE PER SPECIALTY

Infectious Diseases (17/30) 57%
Passmed